Research for Peace and SocialJustice Diane Ross, USA Otterbein University Westerville, Ohio
Who am I? What do I bring to the table Mom Teacher Researcher Scholar Peace Activist Your Servant Leader this week
How do I come to be here? • Area of Inquiry • How do I understand my role in preparing teachers who teach for peace and social justice • Research Methodology- Heuristics; an autobiographical phenomenological method, to explore this issue. • Conclusions: Middle childhood teacher educators must spend their own lives acquiring dispositions to practice social justice and equity if the pre-service educators they instruct are to have any possibility of acquiring these dispositions themselves.
Student Response…. What causes you to “show up” today? How do you come to this place? What hopes do you have for this class time together? This time together will be successful if…….
Essential Questions for the week • How does your interest in peace and social justice move your areas of inquiry? • How is this question situated in the field of “Peace Research” as defined by Galtung? • How can we work in community to support each other’s areas of inquiry? • How does this question move your actions in creating a world that is more peaceful and just?
Ending Products • Before (pre-assessment) • Research survey and personal goals- Mon. AM • During (formative assessment) • Development of your personal question • Butcher block paper- Gallery Walk- Mon. PM • Action Research Protocol- Mon. PM • Appreciative Inquiry Protocol- Tues. AM • Critical Colleague Protocol- Tues. PM • Post- assessment • Research proposal- Present Wed. AM • Turn in a digital copy by email- before a grade is turned in • Will support your research for up to 30 years.
Goals for the week Monday Morning Survey Previous Research Foundation Begin to formulate your own personal research agenda Introduce Research Paradigms Gallery Walk of Critical Feedback Monday Afternoon Introduce Peace Research/ Analyze Galtung theory of Peace Research Introduce Action Research Paradigm Participate in a Action Research Activity Tuesday Morning Introduce Appreciative Inquiry Paradigm Participate in Appreciative Inquiry Activity Tuesday Afternoon Introduce structure of paper and research tools (including online databases) Participate in Critical Colleague Activity Wednesday morning Share personal research protocol with the class/ Graded assignment
(Pair and share….) What is research?
Have you felt good about these…? (Pair and share…) What are your experiences with research?
Research is an organized studywsithmethodical investigation into a subject in order to discover facts, to establish or revise a theory, or to develop a plan of action basedon the facts discovered
Research is a frame of mind….a perspective that people take toward objects and activities (Bogdan and Biklen 1992: 223)
One of the most important things a change agent does it to articulate the questions…
What are the most pressing questions that you have around the issues of peace and Social justice?
Because all change processes begin with framing an issue and collecting data, we become aware that in the very act of doing these preliminary activities, we are socially constructing our future through choices we make and dialogue we use.
1 2 3 What are your three top questions of inquiry?
It is through language that we create the world, because it is nothing until we describe it. And when we describe it, we create distinctions that govern our actions. To put it another way, we do not describe the world we see, but we see the world we describe…. Joseph Jaworski, Synchronicity
Inquiry and change are not separate, but are simultaneous. Inquiry is intervention. The seeds of change – the things people think and talk about, discover and learn, and that inform dialogue and inspire images of the future- are implicit in the very first questions that we ask.
We come to know ourselves by bringing to consciousness the process by which our view points are formed…
You will learn what you already know. You need to learn how to generalize significantly what you know.
Write one question of inquiry that you currently have on butcher block paper and hang this on the wall
To move towards social justice, one must be in a constant state of social research.
Epistemologies and Ontologies How we see the world and how we come to know…. Positivism Quantitative Post-Positivism Constructive Qualitative Perspective The knower and the known cannot be separated Interpretation Gap between rich and poor No single reality Knowledge is conjectural Rationalism Science Stable Consistent Coherent Rising Nuclear Age Global threat to the environment Participant Observer Outsider/ Observer Ex. Adapting visual methods: Action Research with Kampala Street Children Ex, Quantitative Research Provides Compelling Evidence for Success of Participatory Development Programme in Uganda
Research Processes Social Research Positivist and/or Post-positivist “Soft Sciences” Scientific Research Positivist “Hard Sciences” Anthropology Chemistry Biology Mathematics Psychology Cultural Studies Ex: Psychosocial Vulnerability and Resilience Measures For National-Level Monitoring of Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children Ex: Alcohol Consumption in Uganda
Social Research disciplines…. anthropology archaeology comparative musicology communication studies cultural studies Demography Economics History human geography international development international relations linguistics, media studies, philology political science psychology (at least in part) social work social policy sociology
Research Process: Systematic Interaction Between Theories and Data Quantitative Methods What/ Where/ When Qualitative Methods Why/ How PersonalExperiences Smaller number of attributes across many cases Concerned with understanding the meaning of social phenomena Larger number of attributes across relatively few cases Attempts to quantify social phenomena Collects and analyzes numerical data Interpretation over quantification Journals Diaries Structured Interview Content Analysis Survey Focus Groups Participant observation Questionnaire StructuredObservation Secondary Analysis Semi/Un structured Interviews Text -Based Data
Ethnographical Research Immersing an individual researcher or research team in the everyday activities of an organization or society, usually for a prolonged period of time, very naturalistic, impossible to gather from laboratory or "clean room" observational studies. An ethnographic study of rural community literacy practices in Bweyale and their implications for adult literacy education in Uganda
Phenomenological research Observation of an experience From it the essential features of experiences and the essence of what we experience. Hannah Arendt: Eichmann in Jerusalem(1963), "the banality of evil“
Feminist research • all research is essentially value-driven • always results in some kind of new action or practice • is `driven' by the interests of the women • collaborative design and conduct of the research; • questions, and otherwise disrupts the reproduction and perpetuation of power relationships that subordinate women `subjects' as objects • respects and values women's experiences and their accounts of them • Troubling the Angels, Patti Lather..
Critical theory Research is an ethical and political act Paulo Friere
Auto-ethnography • Writing about the Self Analytically • Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez: An Autobiography. By Richard Rodriguez. Boston, MA: D.R. Godine, 1982. • Social blindness: An autoethnographic study of the interplay of language, cognition, and genetics in a family with an autistic child.
Heuristics Internal search through which one discovers the nature and meaning of experience and develops methods and procedures for further investigation and analysis. Knowledge derived is attained through tacit, intuitive or observed phenomena, is deepened through indwelling, focusing, self-searching or dialogue with others, and always needs a medium or base - its frame of reference Loneliness, Moustakas, Clark
What questions can you ask to help move this person forward and to help clarify their question….? Gallery Walk….
Social Justice and Research….Basic premise for the class… Social justice is not static or timeless. The theory of justice is understood as an attempt to understand what a society’s actions, practices, and norms mean and to elucidate what a community’s shared understandings are so that they are agreed upon principles of social justice.
II. What is Peace Research?Twenty Five Years of Peace Research- Galtung • Jigsaw Group • Group 1- Read 141-143 Key points • Group 2- Read 143-144 Key points • Group 3- Read 148-149 Key points • Group 4- Read 152- 153 Key points • Group 5- Read 156- Key Points • Regroup and teach your section • A, B, C, D, E
Elements of Peace Research Dialogic Explicit value Inter-disciplinary…..Intra….Trans-disciplinary Inter-national….Intra…..Trans-national…. Holistic Global
Peace studies are……..Johan Galtung (2005, Peace: A Ten Point Primer) Empirical Critical Constructive (I would say… focused on change…) Paradigm of Praxis Transformative Emancipatory
Empirical dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. scientific statements are subject to and derived from our experiences or observations Construct hypotheses Compare data and hypotheses
Critical Ethical Politically empowering Compare data with values related to peace Data must be explicit Comparison carried out with rigor Human behavior critics