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Whistle Blowing: its importance to good Governance 举报:对良好治理的重要性

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  1. Whistle Blowing: its importance to good Governance举报:对良好治理的重要性 Dr. Kevin Kane凯文·凯恩博士 Salford University萨尔福德大学 UK英国 China-Europe Public Administration Project II (CEPA II) 中欧公共管理二期项目

  2. NHS Chief ‘stopped from speaking on patient safety英国国家医疗服务体系首长被禁止就患者安全发言 Health service manager Gary Walker is the first former NHS employee to break the so-called “super gag”. 医疗服务管理者加里·沃克是敢于打破所谓“超级禁言令”的首位NHS前雇员。 Gas market whistleblower sacked after accusing firms of price fixing汽油市场举报者揭发多公司限价行为后遭解雇 Seth Freedman, the whistleblower at the centre of energy market manipulation allegations, has been sacked by his price reporting agency, ICIS Heren.赛斯·弗里德曼,能源市场操纵指控中的举报者,已被其供职的价格报告机构ICIS Heren解雇 18 January 2013 The Guardian 《卫报》 2013年1月18日 Olympus whistleblower Michael Woodford speaks out 奥林巴斯举报人迈克尔·伍德福德出声了 14 February 20132013年2月14日 BBC News英国广播公司新闻 Michael Woodford, who blew the whistle on an accounting scandal at Olympus, appeared at its shareholders' meeting and demanded to know why he was fired as chief executive.揭露奥林巴斯一起会计核算丑闻的迈克尔·伍德福德, 日前现身于公司股东大会,质问其作为执行长为何遭解聘。 20 April 20122012年4月20日 The Independent《独立报》 Ryanair sacks pilot over Channel 4 Dispatches Programme4台播出节目后瑞安航空解聘一飞行员 Ryanair has sacked a senior pilot and is preparing legal action against him over “defamatory” comments he made about the airline’s safety policy in a Channel 4 documentary.瑞安航空一高级飞行员在4台的一部纪录片中就该公司安全政策发表“诽谤性”言论后遭瑞安航空解雇,瑞安正在准备对其提起起诉。 15 August 2013 2013 年8月15日 The Telegraph《电讯报》

  3. What is whistleblowing?什么是举报? Someone blows the whistle when they tell their employer, a regulator, customers, the police or the media about wrongdoing, risk or malpractice that they are aware of through their work.举报就是有人在工作过程中发现过错、风险或舞弊行为时向其雇主、监管者、客户、警察或媒体进行揭发的行为。

  4. Whistleblowing举报 The British Standards Institute :英国标准协会: “when someone who works in or for an organisation…...raises a concern about a possible fraud, crime, danger or other serious risk that could threaten customers, colleagues, shareholders, the public or the organisation’s own reputation.” “当一个组织的员工或合作者……对可能危害客户、同事、股东、公众或本组织声誉的可能欺诈、犯罪、危险情况或其他严重风险提起有关方面注意。” http://www.bsigroup.com/en/sectorsandservices/Forms/PAS-19982008-Whistleblowing/

  5. Bad Press负面报道 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/1443093.stm

  6. Bad Press负面报道 “The doctor who blew the whistle on the Bristol heart babies scandal said he was forced to emigrate following threats and discrimination. 揭发“布里斯托尔心脏病婴儿丑闻的医生称,因受到威胁和歧视,他已被迫移民。 Anaesthetist Professor Stephen Bolsin tried first to raise his concerns with colleagues, but when these were ignored he took his worries about the deaths of 29 babies and children at the Bristol Royal Infirmary to the department of health. 29名婴儿和儿童在布里斯托尔皇家医院死亡后,麻醉科教授斯蒂芬·博尔钦首先试图向同事提出自己的担忧,被同事无视后,他将疑虑报告给了卫生署。 But he said his decision to go public had led to him being forced out of the Bristol Royal Infirmary and having to move to Australia, where he is now Head of Anaesthesia at the Geelong Hospital, near Melbourne, Australia.”不过他表示,他公开此事的决定使他被迫辞去了布里斯托尔皇家医院的工作,不得不移民至澳大利亚。目前他在墨尔本附近的吉隆医院任麻醉科主任。” http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/1443093.stm

  7. What is the difference between making a complaint and blowing the whistle?投诉和举报的区别是什么? When someone blows the whistle they are raising a concern about danger or illegality that affects others (e.g. customers, members of the public, or their employer).举报是针对有可能对其他人(比如客户、公众人士、或自己的雇主)造成不良影响的危险或违法行为提起有关方面注意。 The person blowing the whistle is usually not directly, personally affected by the danger or illegality.举报人的自身利益通常并不直接受到此危险或违法行为的影响。 He or she is a messenger raising a concern so that others can address it.他/她只是一个报信者,提出忧虑以便其他各方加以解决。

  8. Breakdown of types of wrongdoing 过错行为种类划分 Source: PCaW

  9. EY/Public Concern at Work Study 2013EY/ 2013年《工作中的公众忧虑》研究 93% of respondents said they have formal whistleblowing arrangements in place93%的受访者表示有到位的正式举报安排 But 1 in 3 think their whistleblowing arrangements are not effective但是三分之一的受访者认为其举报安排不起作用 54% said they do not train key members of staff designated to receive concerns54%的人表示他们并未培训专门负责接收担忧的关键人员 44% confuse personal complaints with whistleblowing44%将个人投诉与举报混为一谈 1 in 10 say their arrangements are not clearly endorsed by senior management十分之一的人称其举报安排并未得到高级管理层的明确支持

  10. Responses to whistleblowing 对举报的回应 • 83% of workers blow the whistle up to two times, usually internally. 83%的员工至多举报过两回,通常是内部举报。 • 15% of whistleblowers raise a concern externally. However only 60% blow the whistle externally even on the third attempt. Only 22 individuals raised a concern four or more times. Half of these went outside their organisation. 15%的举报人对外举报。不过仅有60%的对外举报者进行到第三次尝试。仅有22人曾四次以上提出举报。这些人中有一半是在其组织外进行的举报。 • 74% of whistleblowers say nothing is done about the wrongdoing. 74%的举报人称举报后过错行为没有任何纠正。 • 60% of whistleblowers receive no response from management, either negative or positive. 60%的举报人收到了来自管理层的回应,有正面的有负面的。 • The most likely response is formal action (disciplinary or demotion) (19%).最可能的回应是正式行动(惩戒或降级处分)(19%) • 15% of whistleblowers are dismissed. 15%的举报者被解雇。 • Senior whistleblowers are more likely to be dismissed.位于高层的举报者最可能遭到解雇。 • Newer employees are most likely to blow the whistle (39% have less than two years' service).入职时间较晚的员工最可能进行举报(39%的举报人工作时间不满两年)

  11. Do Whistle-blowers have legal protection in the EU?举报人在欧盟受到法律保护吗? 举报人保护方面的法律:欧盟国家评级 卢森堡 罗马尼亚 斯洛文尼亚 英国 保加利亚 芬兰 希腊 立陶宛 葡萄牙 斯洛伐克 西班牙 奥地利 比利时 塞浦路斯 捷克共和国 丹麦 爱沙尼亚 法国 德国 匈牙利 爱尔兰 意大利 拉脱维亚 马耳他 荷兰 波兰 瑞典 国家现有法律包括针对公私部门举报者全面或基本全面的规定和程序 国家现有法律不包括或非常有限度地包括针对公私部门举报者的规定和程序。 国家现有法律包括针对公私部门举报者部分规定和程序

  12. Do whistleblowers have legal protection in the UK?举报人在英国受到法律保护吗? Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 (PIDA) 《公众利益披露法 》(简称PIDA) “An Act to protect individuals who make certain disclosures of information in the public interest; to allow such individuals to bring action in respect of victimisation; and for connected purposes.” “(该法)是一部保护为公共利益而披露某些信息的个人;允许其在因披露而受害时提出诉讼;并为相关目的订立。” But not: armed forces, intelligence officers, volunteers and the self-employed但是不包括:军队、情报人员、志愿者和自雇者 PIDA is generally regarded as ‘…the strongest in europe and among the best in the world’ (transparency international 2013)《公众利益披露法》被普遍认为是“欧洲最强、世界最佳”(国际透明组织,2013年)

  13. Legal protection for whistleblowing对举报的合法保护 A criminal offence刑事犯罪 The breach of a legal obligation违反法定义务 A miscarriage of justice司法不公 A danger to the health and safety of any individual危害任何人的健康和安全 Damage to the environment对环境的破坏 Deliberate attempt to conceal any of the above.故意隐瞒上述任何一项。

  14. The Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 1998年《公众利益披露法 》 合理理由相信 为了公共利益而做出的披露 China-Europe Public Administration Project II (CEPA II) 中欧公共管理二期项目

  15. Would you blow the whistle?你会不会举报呢? 22% would not raise a concern through fear of reprisal - according a YouGov survey conducted on behalf of Public Concern at Work in June 2013. 22%不会举报,因为害怕报复——依据《工作中的工作忧虑》委托YouGov 在2013年6月进行的一项调查 You have a concern at work. Do you你对工作上的某些事有忧虑,你会 A. Keep Quiet保持安静 B. Raise Internally内部提一下 C. Go Outside散发到外界

  16. Michael Woodford, the former president of Olympus奥利巴斯前总裁迈克尔·伍德福德

  17. 结束 18