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Extensive Reading

Extensive Reading

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Extensive Reading

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  1. Extensive Reading Mark Brierley Shinshu University

  2. What is ER? • Extensive Reading • Graded reading • SSR • 「多読」 • …「楽読」 • Side reading

  3. What is ER? “Students reading a lot of easy, enjoyable books” 「読みやすく、楽しめる本をたくさん読むこと。」 - Marc Helgesen (2005).

  4. What is ER? “The royal road to learning” (学習への王道) 夏目 漱石

  5. What is ER? 「英語を極めたければ、毎日数時間は英語を読め」 松本亨

  6. Why ER? • Input hypothesis - Stephen Krashen (1985) • Vocabulary and collocation - Paul Nation and Rob Waring (1997)

  7. Top Ten Words What are they in Japanese? What are the most common words in English? What percentage of English is written with these words? 25%

  8. What does “to” mean? • I’m about to go to Tokyo to attend to some business. • about to • to [place] • to [infinitive] • to attend to

  9. Words and text coverage

  10. ...scarcely...directly...position...kindness...although...laughing...opposite...mistress...stranger...somebody...finished...wouldn't...mother's...promised...dreadful...shoulder...whenever...somewhat...greatest...couldn't...servants...thought...himself...without...nothing...another...herself...through...perhaps...against...because...between...morning...however...looking...towards...brought...replied...believe...present...whether...evening...suppose...chapter...country...husband...certain...already...friends...feeling...account...neither...subject...company...opinion...brother...entered...married...general...silence...turning...forward...several...strange...purpose...pleased...trouble...sitting...getting...there's...besides...hundred...minutes...carried...instead...natural...further...obliged...knowing...fortune...talking...spirits...stopped...leaving...promise...comfort...captain...laughed...reached...walking...waiting...exactly...service...putting...society...perfect...journey...arrived...engaged...respect...history...mention...clothes...settled...running...allowed...outside...hearing...serious...farther...changed...o'clock...passing...greater...reading...anybody...started...meaning...servant...keeping...finding...anxious.....scarcely...directly...position...kindness...although...laughing...opposite...mistress...stranger...somebody...finished...wouldn't...mother's...promised...dreadful...shoulder...whenever...somewhat...greatest...couldn't...servants...thought...himself...without...nothing...another...herself...through...perhaps...against...because...between...morning...however...looking...towards...brought...replied...believe...present...whether...evening...suppose...chapter...country...husband...certain...already...friends...feeling...account...neither...subject...company...opinion...brother...entered...married...general...silence...turning...forward...several...strange...purpose...pleased...trouble...sitting...getting...there's...besides...hundred...minutes...carried...instead...natural...further...obliged...knowing...fortune...talking...spirits...stopped...leaving...promise...comfort...captain...laughed...reached...walking...waiting...exactly...service...putting...society...perfect...journey...arrived...engaged...respect...history...mention...clothes...settled...running...allowed...outside...hearing...serious...farther...changed...o'clock...passing...greater...reading...anybody...started...meaning...servant...keeping...finding...anxious.. themselves...everything...immediately...understand...afterwards...conversation...appearance...particular...circumstances...impossible...considered...altogether...countenance...opportunity...determined...especially...acquaintance...particularly...expression...difficulty...understood...satisfaction...confidence...consequence...difference...frightened...something...gentleman...sometimes...therefore...certainly...continued...different...character...knowledge...necessary...beautiful...presently...attention...beginning...happiness...gentlemen...perfectly...everybody...mentioned...affection...exclaimed...companion...breakfast...afternoon...otherwise...condition...situation...following...advantage...miserable...surprised...direction...generally...satisfied...tomorrow...proceeded...according...anything...together...answered...returned...business...pleasure...yourself...children...appeared...thinking...question...possible...remember...daughter...interest...thoughts...followed...received...whatever...happened...observed...suddenly...creature...standing...expected...distance...occasion...remained...speaking...marriage...presence...feelings...pleasant...entirely...thousand...strength...probably...repeated...father's...handsome...supposed...resolved...consider...surprise...carriage...believed Word concentric circles .conduct...telling.. .passion...meeting...offered...matters ...private...justice...letters...holding...delight...weather.. .written...kitchen...persons...quarter...ashamed...quickly... writing...quietly...touched...smiling...watched...manners...calling ...little...should...before...though...having...looked...better...always ...seemed...enough...indeed...mother...myself...rather...father...people.. .things...almost...moment...friend...turned...called...manner...course.... .matter...really...passed...behind...person...making...within...answer...let. reason...pretty...others...that's...either...taking...walked...strong...nate.. hardly...saying...wanted...return...fellow...afraid...honour...ground ...except...seeing...second...window...sister...longer...wonder… ..during...dinner...across...doctor...living...wished...silent. ..common...likely...length...street...become..giving... struck...church...object..ladies...former.. .corner...spirit...horses... notice...figure... twenty...months...broken...secret.. .minute...showed...pounds...nearly...school... heaven...beauty...desire...effect...caught...regard.. .follow...spoken...raised...future...temper...appear. .easily...unless...expect...sudden...latter...garden... honest...you'll...bright...danger...proper...talked. ..public...forget...speech...slowly...sooner ...gentle...placed.. once…love ...knew...lady...room.. .sure...door...told...till...felt ...both...side...seen ...who...gone. Words we understand There are many English words! Words we can use Words we have seen

  11. What are these? • What are they called in Japanese? • 漢字で書いてください!

  12. Vocabulary Questions • What is wine made from? • Pinot noir, cabernet sauvignon and chardonnay are varieties of _______? • What is 葡萄 in English? • What is the common name for vitis vinifera?

  13. Do you know the word? • How do you spell it? • What is it in Japanese? • What does it mean? Japanese Word English Word English Word Japanese Word Japanese Word English Word

  14. Do you know the word? • What nuances does it have? • How do you use the word? • What situations do you use it in? • Which words does it like?

  15. Noun-verb Collocations • 靴を履く  • コートを着る • めがねをかける • Wear shoes • Wear a coat • Wear glasses

  16. More collocations • Bake bread • Fry an egg • Grill a fish • パンを焼く • 卵を焼く • 魚を焼く

  17. More collocations • have a cold • make a mistake • take a train

  18. Collocation • Words “hunt in packs” • (Thornbury, 1998)

  19. Top ten

  20. Probability • “the”: 1 in 20 words • “of”: 1 in 50 words • “of the”: 1 in 200 words • (not 1 in 1,000 words) • “the of”: never!

  21. Probability • “the”: 1 in 20 words • “of”: 1 in 50 words • “one”: 1 in 400 • “One of the”1 in 3,000 words • (not 1 in 400,000)

  22. Collocation graph

  23. Experiment • You will see four sentences in Japanese. Each will appear for the same time. Try to read each sentence. • Are you ready?

  24. 各文章は、四秒半で消えます。

  25. 辞書を引かないで無茶苦茶に英書をたくさん読むがよい辞書を引かないで無茶苦茶に英書をたくさん読むがよい

  26. 難句集というものは一方に偏していわば軽業の稽古である

  27. おまわりさんはおいしいハンバーガーをがぶりとかみつきました。おまわりさんはおいしいハンバーガーをがぶりとかみつきました。

  28. そうりだいじんはこくさいかいぎでじゅうようなはつげんをしました。そうりだいじんはこくさいかいぎでじゅうようなはつげんをしました。

  29. Which was easier? • 辞書を引かないで無茶苦茶に英書をたくさん読むがよい • 難句集というものは一方に偏していわば軽業の稽古である

  30. Which was easier? • おまわりさんはおいしいハンバーガーをがぶりとかみつきました。 • そうりだいじんはこくさいかいぎでじゅうようなはつげんをしました。 • 総理大臣は国際会議で重要な発言をしました。

  31. 夏目漱石『現代読書法』 (1906年) • “英語を修むる青年はある程度まで修めたら辞書を引かないで無茶苦茶に英書を沢山読むがよい、少し解らない節があって其処は飛ばして 読んでいってもドシドシと読書していくと終いには解るようになる、又前後の関係でも了解せられる、其れでも解らないのは滅多に出ない文字である、要するに 英語を学ぶ者は日本人がちょうど国語を学ぶような状態に自然的習慣によってやるがよい、即ち幾変となく繰り返し繰り返しするがよい、ちと極端な話のようだ が之も自然の方法であるから手当たり次第読んでいくがよかろう。

  32. 彼の難句集なども読んで器械的に暗唱するのは拙い、殊に彼のようなものの中から試験問題等 出すというのはいよいよつまらない話である、何故ならば難句集などでは一般の学力を鑑定することは出来ない、学生の綱渡りが出来るか否やを視るぐらいなもので、学生も要するにきわどい綱渡りはできても地面の上が歩けなくては仕方のない話ではないか、難句集というものは一方に偏していわば軽業の稽古である。試験官などが時間の節約上且つは気の利いたものを出したいというのであんな者を出すのは、ややもすると弊害を起こすのであるから斯様なもののみ出すのは宜しくない。

  33. もし

  34. 読む

  35. とき

  36. 一語

  37. 一語

  38. 読んで

  39. 行く

  40. なら

  41. 全体

  42. 意味

  43. 理解

  44. する