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Reproductive Health & Safety

Reproductive Health & Safety

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Reproductive Health & Safety

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  1. Reproductive Health & Safety Lesson 3 – Sexually Transmitted Diseases & Sexually Transmitted Infections

  2. Ground Rules • Be Respectful • Exhibit Maturity • Demonstrate Patience Reproductive Health & Safety

  3. The Question Box Reproductive Health & Safety

  4. Let’s Review Reproductive Health & Safety

  5. A Quick Review • Steps to Decision Making • Risky Behaviors • Abstinence Reproductive Health & Safety

  6. Getting to Know You - Part 2 Reproductive Health & Safety

  7. Terminology Sexually Transmitted Disease vs. Sexually Transmitted Infection http://www.ashastd.org/learn/learn_overview.cfm Reproductive Health & Safety

  8. STD & HIV/AIDS Statistics 2009 STD & HIV/AIDS Surveillance Reports, NCDHHS Division of Public Health Reproductive Health & Safety

  9. The Three Types of STD/STIs • Bacterial • Bacterial Vaginosis • Chlamydia • Gonorrhea • Syphilis • Viral • Herpes Simplex Virus • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) • Viral Hepatitis • Parasitic • Trichomoniasis • Scabies • Pubic Lice (Crabs)

  10. Bacterial STDs/STIs • Chlamydia • Gonorrhea • Syphilis Wake County Public School System Reproductive Health & Safety

  11. Chlamydia • What – Caused by a bacteria • #1 reported bacterial STD in the US • Transmitted – • Oral  Vaginal •  Anal  Mother to baby during vaginal delivery Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Chlamydia – Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  12. Chlamydia Symptoms –  Often described as “silent” If symptoms occur they may include:  Burning sensation during urination  Penile or vaginal discharge Diagnosis – ▪ Laboratory tests Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Chlamydia – Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  13. Chlamydia Prevention –  Abstinence from sexual activity  Long-term mutually monogamous relationship with uninfected partner  Latex condoms can reduce the risk of contracting a STD/STI spread through sexual contact Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Chlamydia – Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  14. Chlamydia Treatment – Antibiotics Complications – ♀ Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ♂ Rare Incidence –Rate/100,000 % of cases by age (10-19) North Carolina 474.2 ♀ 32% ♂ 4% Wake County 414.4 Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Chlamydia – Content updated: December 2007 & NC DHHS 2009 STD Surveillance Tables Reproductive Health & Safety

  15. Gonorrhea Photo Source: CDC/ M. Rein Reproductive Health & Safety

  16. Gonorrhea What – Caused by a bacteria  Common infectious disease • Transmitted – • Oral  Vaginal •  Anal  Mother to baby during vaginal delivery Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Gonorrhea – Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  17. Gonorrhea Symptoms –  Often symptoms are not present If symptoms occur they may include:  Burning sensation during urination  Penile discharge (white, yellow or green)  Vaginal discharge or bleeding Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Gonorrhea– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  18. Gonorrhea Diagnosis – ▪ Laboratory tests Prevention –  Abstinence from sexual activity  Long-term mutually monogamous relationship with uninfected partner  Latex condoms can reduce the risk of contracting a STD/STI spread through sexual contact Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Gonorrhea– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  19. Gonorrhea Treatment – Antibiotics Complications – ♀ Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ♂ Epididymitis Incidence –Rate/100,000 % of cases by age (10-19) North Carolina 160.6 ♀ 21% ♂ 8% Wake County 116.6 Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Chlamydia – Content updated: December 2007 & NC DHHS 2009 STD Surveillance Tables Reproductive Health & Safety

  20. Syphilis Photo Source: CDC/ VDRL Department Reproductive Health & Safety

  21. Syphilis • What – Caused by a bacteria • Often called “the great imitator” • Transmitted – • Oral  Vaginal •  Anal  Mother to baby Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Syphilis– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  22. Syphilis • Symptoms –  Often symptoms are not noticed • If symptoms occur they may include: • Primary stage  Visible sores called chancres • Secondary stage  Rash Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Syphilis– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  23. Syphilis Symptoms – If symptoms occur they may include: Late stages difficulty coordinating movement, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, dementia and possible death Diagnosis – ▪ Blood test ▪ Microscopic lab test Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Syphilis– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  24. Syphilis Prevention –  Abstinence from sexual activity  Long-term mutually monogamous relationship with uninfected partner  Latex condoms can reduce the risk of contracting a STD/STI through sexual contact, however transmission can still occur if the infected site is not covered Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Syphilis– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  25. Syphilis Treatment – Antibiotics Complications – ♀ & ♂ In approximately 15% of the untreated population syphilis may result in paralysis, numbness, dementia and gradual blindness. Incidence –Rate/100,000 % of cases by age (10-19) North Carolina 6.3 ♀ 2% ♂ 5% Wake County 8.3 Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Chlamydia – Content updated: December 2007 & NC DHHS 2009 STD Surveillance Tables Reproductive Health & Safety

  26. Activity # 2 Can I Have Your Autograph…Please? Reproductive Health & Safety

  27. Viral STDs & STIs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genital Herpes Hepatitis B Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Reproductive Health & Safety

  28. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) What – Caused by a virus  Most commonly transmitted sexual infection Transmitted –  Oral  Vaginal • Anal  Mother to baby during  vaginal delivery • Skin to Skin Contact Source: CDC Fact Sheet – HPV– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  29. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) • Symptoms – Different types of HPV can cause different symptoms • If symptoms occur they may include: • Genital warts  Single or clustered raised and/or flat bumps • Usually appear in the genital area, anus and/or thighs Source: CDC Fact Sheet – HPV– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  30. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) • Symptoms – Different types of HPV can cause different symptoms • If symptoms occur they may include: • Cervical cancer Very few signs or symptoms • Other HPV related cancersVery few signs or symptoms Source: CDC Fact Sheet – HPV– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  31. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Diagnosis – Genital Warts ▪ Visual Inspection Cervical Cancer ▪ Pap Test Prevention – HPV Vaccines for males and females ages 9-26 are available Source: CDC Fact Sheet – HPV– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  32. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) HPV Vaccine is recommended for boys and girls Source: CDC Fact Sheet – HPV– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  33. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevention –  Abstinence from sexual contact  Long-term mutually monogamous relationship with uninfected partner  Latex condoms can reduce the risk of contracting a STD/STI through sexual contact, however transmission can occur if the infected site is not covered Source: CDC Fact Sheet – HPV– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  34. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Treatment – Healthy immune system Genital Warts – Physician removes Over the Counter Medication Source: CDC Fact Sheet – HPV– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  35. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Treatment (continued) – Cervical cancer & HPV related cancers –  Prevention is the key  Early detection is critical  Treatment may be determined by the patient and their physician Source: CDC Fact Sheet – HPV– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  36. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Complications – ♀ Cervical cancer and/or other HPV related cancers ♂ Other HPV related cancers Source: CDC Fact Sheet – HPV– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  37. Genital Herpes Photo Source: CDC/ Joe Miller Reproductive Health & Safety

  38. Genital Herpes What – Caused by a virus  Most genital herpes are caused by HSV-2 • Transmitted – • Oral  Vaginal •  Anal Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Genital Herpes - Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  39. Genital Herpes Symptoms –  Outbreaks occur typically 2 weeks after infection When symptoms occur they may include: Primary Episode  Sores (lasting 2-4 weeks) Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Genital Herpes – Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  40. Genital Herpes Symptoms –  Outbreaks occur typically 2 weeks after infection When symptoms occur they may include: Secondary Episode  Sores  Flu-like symptoms Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Genital Herpes – Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  41. Genital Herpes Diagnosis – ▪ Laboratory tests Blood test Microscopic test of sample from sores ▪ Visual inspection of sores Treatment – No cure  Medication minimizes outbreaks Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Genital Herpes– Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  42. Genital Herpes Prevention –  Abstinence from sexual contact  Long-term mutually monogamous relationship with uninfected partner  Latex condoms can reduce the risk of contracting a STD/STI through sexual contact, however transmission can occur if the infected site is not covered Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Genital Herpes – Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  43. Genital Herpes Complications – ♀ & ♂ Increased chance of HIV infection ♀ Rare occasions - life threatening infections in unborn babies late in pregnancy Source: CDC Fact Sheet – Genital Herpes – Content updated: December 2007 Reproductive Health & Safety

  44. Transmission Hepatitis A Ingesting fecal matter Hepatitis B + C Body fluids Signs/Symptoms Can Include; Fever, Fatigue, Loss of Appetite Nausea, Vomiting, Abdominal pain Dark Urine, Joint Pain, Jaundice Clay-colored bowel movements Treatment A our immune system B, C None Effects on the body Affects the liver Leading cause of liver cancer Most common types Hepatitis A, B, C Uncommon in USA Hepatitis D, E Statistics In the United States, an estimated 3.2 million Americans are living with chronic Hepatitis C. (Most common blood borne STI) Viral Hepatitis

  45. Differences in Types of Hepatitis

  46. Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) Photo Source: CDC/C. Goldsmith, P. Feorino, E.L. Palmer, W.R. McManus Reproductive Health & Safety

  47. Human Immunodeficiency Virus How is HIV not transmitted? • HIV is not easily passed from one person to another. The virus does not survive well outside of the body. HIV cannot be transmitted through casual or everyday contact such as shaking hands or hugging. Sweat, tears, vomit, feces and urine do contain small amounts of HIV, but they have not been reported to transmit the disease. Mosquitoes and other insects do not transmit HIV.

  48. Human Immunodeficiency Virus What – Caused by a virus  Often referred to as HIV  Can lead to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) Source: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/qa/index.htm Reproductive Health & Safety

  49. Human Immunodeficiency Virus How is it transmitted? Source: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/qa/index.htm Wake County Public School System Reproductive Health & Safety

  50. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Symptoms –  Many people have no symptoms  Other people may notice flu-like symptoms a few weeks after becoming infected. These symptoms may last 1-2 weeks Source: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/qa/index.htm Reproductive Health & Safety