An oscilloscope can be a priceless price of test equipment used for observation of electrical/electronic wave patterns. Oscilloscope's
Oscilloscope's • To properly use an oscilloscope you must understand the scale selections. • Must automotive oscilloscope will automatically adjust to the proper scale. • It’s the technician job to interpret the reading and determine if the wave form is normal or defective. • Not all devices operate in the same manner please check manufactures specifications before replacing any sensor.
Oscilloscope are used to measure voltage over a period of time. An event that happens over a period of time is called frequency and in measured in Hertz per second. Oscilloscope's 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 VOLTAGE 1 Second Scale TIME
Grid lines 15 10 5 0 5 10 12.2 filter DC voltage V O L T A G E 6 – 9 volts unfiltered DC voltage 4 Volts Peak to Peak AC Voltage 1 Second scale
Filtered voltage: A smooth supply of voltage. Unfiltered voltage: Normally a ripple type wave pattern. Oscilloscope's
An AC wave form change direction from positive to negative. Peak voltage: is the voltage from the highest positive voltage to the lowest negative voltage reading. Oscilloscope's +5 0 -5
Peak to Peak voltage is determine by multiplying: Grid division x voltage setting = Peak to peak voltage
Oscilloscope's • Oscilloscope can be used to measure an event over a period of time. • Frequency: Number of complete cycles per second measured in hertz (Hz). • Hertz (Hz): Unit of measurement for frequency. 1 hertz equal 1 cycle per second.
Oscilloscope's • To check frequency you may need some math. • Number of grid lines covered for 1 cycle divided by the time scale.
The Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) relies upon information coming in from speed sensors. The wave form produced is used by the ABS control module to determine if wheel lock-up is occurring. Wheel speed sensor
2 V O L T SCALE 5 mS Time Scale NORAM ABS PATTERN
2 V O L T S C AL E 10 mS 2 Volts 10 mS Time Scale Normal ABS Pattern
A throttle position is normally produces an analog signal. The throttle position is normally used to tell the PCM the position of the throttle Analog signal: an electrical signal that varies in strength. Throttle Position Sensor
Throttle Held open Throttle Snapped 5 4 3 2 1 0 200 mS Time Division Normal Throttle Position Wave Form Most throttle position can be easily seen on the 200 mS scale
Defective TPS 5 4 3 2 1 0 200 mS Time Division Normal Throttle Position Wave Form Most throttle position can be easily seen on the 200 mS scale
The voltage output from the internal track of an Air Flow Meter (AFM) should be linear to flap movement, This can be measured on an oscilloscope Air Flow Meters
MASS AIR FLOW METER • The waveform should show approximately 1.0 volt when the engine is at idle, • Voltage will rise as engine when engine speed is increased. • A peak voltage of around 4.5 is normal due to natural inertia. • Voltage will drop and then level off
Normal float back to match air flow Spike due to acceleration Throttle Released Normal fall-off caused by inertia Around 1 Volt at idle
Hot Wire Air flow Meters Temperature stabilizes Voltage spike due to quick throttle opening 5 4 3 2 1 0 Throttle Released Cold air cooling of wire At idle around 1 volt normal 250 mS time division
A defective Mass Air Flow will have low voltage or operate erratic at all throttle angles. A mass air flow angle should change in relation to throttle angle. 5 4 3 2 1 0 250 mS time division
Wave Forms • Another common type wave form is the square wave. • Most electronic components are controlled by a computer PCM, BCM, ECM, ECU or a host of other names. • When the computer turns on a component it usually completes a ground circuit sometime controlling a relay.
Square Wave Normal voltage spikes 15 10 5 0 Normal Square wave. NOTE: Any wave that is on more than off or off ore than on is called a pulsed wave.
Pulsed Wave • Pulsed waves are used to control several electrical components such as: • Fuel pump • Canister solenoids • EGR solenoids Wave length: The time required for on complete cycle of a waveform.
Pulsed Wave . The difference in wave length is caused by circuit demands 20 15 10 5 0 Wave length NORMAL PULSE WAVE
Pulsed Wave . Voltage did not drop properly 20 15 10 5 0 Bad pulse wave Voltage did increase properly
Most coolant sensors are Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) devices. The sensor resistance starts out high around 200 Ohms and drops as engine temperature increases. Coolant Temperature Sensor(CTS)
Bad CTS wave form Good CTS waveform V O L T S 5 4 3 2 1 0 50 100 150 200 250 50 second scale
Bad CTS wave forms Bad CTS sensor or electrical connection disconnected waveform V O L T S 5 4 3 2 1 0 Bad CTS erratic voltage pattern 50 100 150 200 250 50 second scale
This signal should be test when the engine fail to start due to lack ignition. The crankshaft sensor produces an AC voltage that is low while cranking and increases after the engine starts. AC voltage output is critical, low output can prevent an engine from starting. Even if the signal pattern look good. Crankshaft Sensor
Crankshaft Sensor Normal due to missing tooth on reluctor or flywheel. The missing tooth is used by the PCM to determine crankshaft position
Crankshaft Sensor Voltage at start-up Voltage at higher cranking RPM NOTE: Operating parameters vary from manufactures
Crankshaft Sensor Engine Running: Note the higher voltage
A defective crankshaft sensor will show little or no output on the oscilloscope Proper output voltage is critical. Crankshaft Sensor 1 .8 .6 .4 .2 0 .2 .4 Defective Crankshaft sensor Voltage to LOW
A knock sensor is used with some management systems, The Knock sensor is a small piezo-electrical device. That produces electricity when vibrated. Knock sensor are used to reduce ignition timing when a spark knock occurs. Usually no more than 10˚ Knock Sensor Knock Sensor
Knock Sensor 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 Point where knock occurred V O L T AGE NOTE: Knock sensor output should normally be zero 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 50 mS scale
Knock Sensor 5 4 3 2 1 0 Bad knock sensor pattern 50 100 150 200 250 300
Its important to remember that all electrical wiring will have some type electrical pattern that can be view on an oscilloscope. Oscilloscope's Open Circuit NOTE: Voltage is “0” on an open circuit Good ground circuit
1. Technician Asays pattern A is DC voltage. Technician B says Pattern B is DC voltage. Who is correct. A. Technician A only B. Technician B only C. Both A and B D. Neither A nor B Pattern A Oscilloscope's Quiz Pattern B
2. How many seconds pass from point A to Pont B? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 4. 4 Oscilloscope's Quiz A B 1 Second Scale
3.Technician A says this pattern is an AC wave form. Technician B says this is DC unfiltered. Who is correct? A. Technician A Only B. Technician B only C. Both A and B D. Neither A nor B Oscilloscope's Quiz 2 1 0 1 2 2 1 0 1 2
4. What is peak Negative voltage in this pattern? A. - 1 volt B. - 2 volts C. - 4 volts D. -.25 volts Oscilloscope's Quiz 2 1 0 1 2 50 100 150 200
5. What is peak to peak voltage in this pattern? A. 1 volt B. 2 volts C. 4 volts D. .25 volts Oscilloscope's Quiz 2 1 0 1 2 50 100 150 200
Oscilloscope's Quiz • 6. The number of complete cycles per second measured is: • A. Amperage • B. Frequency • C. Ohms • D. Voltage
7. Technician A says voltage is measured from point A - B. Technician B says Time is measure from point C-D. Who is correct? A. Technician A only B. Technician B only C. Both A and B D. Neither A nor B Oscilloscope's Quiz A B C D
8. What time scale is this oscilloscope set for? A. 2 mS B. 5 mS C. 10 mS D. 100 mS Oscilloscope's Quiz
9.Technician A says the wave form is of a defective TPS (Throttle position sensor) Technician B says the pattern is of a good CTS sensor. Who is correct? A. Technician A only B. Technician B only C. Both A and B D. Neither A nor B Oscilloscope's Quiz 5 4 3 2 1 0 50 100 150 200 250 50 Second Scale
10. Which diagram is of a good ground circuit? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 Oscilloscope's Quiz 1 2 3 4