THREATS TO THE INTEGRITY OF SPORT • Academic issues • Breaking the rules to gain competitive advantages • Pressures to win • Violence • Gambling • Arms race • Excessive commercialization
GIRLS AND WOMEN IN SPORTS • Historically excluded from competitive sports because they were considered to be • Harmful physically • Harmful emotionally • Too aggressive (non-feminine) • Gradual changing societal opinion • Persistence of sexual stereotypes • Commercials • Cheerleaders
TITLE IX—COMPLIANCE AREAS • Financial assistance (scholarships) must be available on a substantially proportional basis • Program areas so that males and females receive equivalent treatment, benefits, and opportunities, such as equipment and supplies and practice and competitive facilities • Interests and abilities of male and female students are equally effectively accommodated
TITLE IX—THREE-PRONG TEST • Participation opportunities are substantially proportionate to the undergraduate enrollment. • There must have been a continuing practice of program expansion in response to developing interests and abilities of the under represented sex. • An institution must show that the interest and abilities of the members of the under represented sex have been fully and effectively accommodated.
TITLE IX—How Informed Are You? ______ 1. All educational institutions today are in full compliance with Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments because it is federal law. ______ 2. Title IX applies only to those programs in an educational institution that directly receive federal financial assistance. ______ 3. No federal money has ever been lost because of a violation of Title IX.
TITLE IX—How Informed Are You? ______ 4. Title IX permits those men’s teams that generate revenue to receive additional financial aid and program benefits as long as these benefits are paid for out of the revenues that are produced by these sports. ______ 5. The three-part test used for determining participation opportunities requires the elimination of men’s sports teams in order to achieve proportionality.
TITLE IX—How Informed Are You? ______ 6. The ratio of males and females within the undergraduate student body is used as the basis for determining whether participation opportunities for males and females are substantially proportional. ______ 7. One way to comply with the participation opportunities required by Title IX is to provide the same number of men’s teams as women’s teams.
TITLE IX—How Informed Are You? ______ 8. Title IX requires the expenditure of the equal amount of funds for men’s intercollegiate athletics as for women’s intercollegiate athletics. ______ 9. Title IX requires that coaches of women’s teams receive the same salaries as the coaches of men’s teams. ______ 10. An institution found guilty of violating Title IX risks having to pay compensatory and/or punitive damages.
EQUALITY FOR MINORITIES • Excluded from professional leagues and most colleges and schools • Quota system • Stacking • Academic exploitation • Economic exploitation • Limited opportunities for coaching and management positions
ISSUES FOR MINORITIES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS • Tracking in high school • Sliding scale for high school grades and college entrance tests • Non- and partial-qualifiers and grants-in-aid • Tutorial support • Grants-in-aid to only the highly skilled • Skills in certain sports vs. opportunities
EQUALITY FOR SENIOR CITIZENS • Biases limiting prior opportunities • Living longer and quality of life issues • Increased political and economic influence • Masters competitions • 1987—Senior Games
EQUALITY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS • 1975—Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act today) • 1978—Amateur Sports Act • 1990—Americans with Disabilities Act • 1952—Paralympic Games • 1968—Special Olympics
GOALS FOR YOUTH SPORTS—ATHLETES’ PERSPECTIVES • Have fun • Learn sport skills • Spend time with friends • Feel successful • Have something to do
FOR PARENTS…YOUTH SPORTS SHOULD HELP THEIR CHILDREN • Win (“Did you win” is always the first question parents ask their children.) • Learn sport skills so they can earn a grant-in-aid or become a professional athlete • Share their interest in sports • Keep active (give them something to do) • Play games in an organized, supervised, and safe environment • Develop teamwork, cooperation, self-discipline, and sportsmanship • Learn how to work with others (social skills)
Pressure to win (at all costs) Poorly trained coaches Parental interference and pressure Loss of values or ideals (cheating) Injury risks ignored Violence and gamesmanship Sport specialization Only the skilled play—the others sit on the bench Restricted to one position Financial burden on parents and disruptive to families Not fun any more PROBLEMS IN YOUTH SPORTS
PROPOSED CHANGES IN YOUTH SPORTS • Making sure that having fun is most important • Developing sports skills • Emphasizing playing several sports, not specializing in one sport • Playing every child in each game and in different positions • Educating coaches so they will teach skills, strategies, and rules in developmentally-appropriate ways • Matching youths’ abilities and maturity levels • Keeping the games and participants safe
PROPOSED CHANGES IN YOUTH SPORTS • Educating parents so they model proper behaviors • Giving each child an equal opportunity to strive for success • Deemphasizing winning • Giving certificates of participation, not trophies • Eliminating individual awards and tournaments that reduce playing opportunities • Avoiding all-star and traveling teams • Teaching and modeling values like cooperation, discipline, fair play, respect, responsibility, sportsmanship, and teamwork
INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORTS • Viewed as an important part of the extracurricular activities of high school students • Concerns about middle school teams becoming “farm clubs” for high schools • Provide a rallying activity for • Schools and their students • Communities and cities
VALUES OF INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORTS • Using leisure time more productively • Developing physical fitness and sport skills • Learning and displaying sportsmanship and ethical behaviors • Gaining greater self-discipline • Learning how to work as a member of a team
PROBLEMS FACING INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORTS • Lack of adequate funding • Lack of adequate facilities and equipment • Lack of qualified coaches for all sports • Lack of parental and school support • Lack of emphasis on teaching educational values
ISSUES IN INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORTS • Too much emphasis on winning • Year-round conditioning programs • Specialization in one sport • Athletes playing while hurt • Coaches’ jobs depending on winning • Drug use and abuse • Unsportsmanlike conduct (violence) • “No pass, no play” • Hazing
ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS • Academics • Preferential admissions • Missed classes • Freshman eligibility • Unearned grades • Failure to graduate
ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS • Recruiting violations • Contacts • Transcript tampering • Inducements • Pressures to win • Sports as businesses (commercialization)
ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS • Loss of educational and ethical values • Loss of institutional control • Media exposure and influence • Point shaving and gambling • Drug use and abuse
PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING DRUGS IN SPORTS • Widespread use in society and in sport is indicative of an overemphasis on winning • Restorative or therapeutic, such as anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve pain • Protein supplements—increase muscle mass • Creatine—increase energy in short duration • Amphetamines—delay fatigue and increase the body's endurance capacity • Anabolic steroids—build muscle mass and strength
PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING DRUGS IN SPORTS • Sources—trainers, doctors, coaches, and teammates • Drug testing http://www.ncaa.org/library/sports_sciences/drug_testing_program/2003-04/2003-04_drug_testing_program.pdf • National Center for Drug Free Sport, Inc. administers the NCAA testing program • 4th Amendment—guarantee of rights against unreasonable searches (urinalysis) • 14th Amendment adds state protection
PROPOSED CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS • When coaches and athletes violate athletic regulations, such as drug abuse or gambling • Sanction them for the first offense • Give a two-year probation for the second offense • Ban violators for life for the third offense • Withhold from an institution for five years one grant-in-aid for every athlete who does not graduate within six years
PROPOSED CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS • Require that coaches of non-revenue producing sports be employed full-time within the institution • Base coaches’ job security and salaries not on their won-lost records but on the fulfillment of their other job responsibilities and the provision of positive experiences for their athletes • Restrict schedules of all sports to no more than one day of competition per week while classes are in session
PROPOSED CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS • Excuse athletes from classes no more than five days per academic year for travel and competition • Admit only those athletes who meet the academic standards of admission to the colleges they attend • Limit grants-in-aid to tuition, fees, and books, and award them only on the basis of need
PROPOSED CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS • Guarantee grants-in-aid • Make freshmen ineligible • Eliminate trivial recruiting rules • Make it illegal for a booster to offer money to a college athlete • Pay student-athletes
PROPOSED CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS • 1991—Knight Commission— Keeping Faith with the Student Athlete • Presidential control • Academic integrity • Financial integrity • Accountability through certification
Participation Model • Eliminate athletic scholarships • Eliminate autonomous athletic departments • Require coaches to be teachers • With masters degrees • Subject to the same personnel policies • Provide job security without requiring wins • Eliminate freshmen eligibility • Upper-class students subject to academic standards • Reduce recruitment of high school students • Eliminate spring football • Eliminate red-shirting • Eliminate academic assistance programs just for athletes Brian Porto’s A New Season, 2003
Participation Model • Eliminate athletic scholarships • Eliminate autonomous athletic departments • Require coaches to be teachers • With masters degrees • Subject to the same personnel policies • Provide job security • Eliminate freshmen eligibility • Upper-class students subject to academic standards Brian Porto’s A New Season, 2003
MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES • Founder—Pierre deCoubertin • Purposes • Spread physical education and sports around the world • Raise the standard of physical achievement, especially in France • Link all people of the world in friendship
ISSUES WITH THE OLYMPIC GAMES • Drug abuse • Politics • Commercialization • Cheating
POSSIBILIITES FOR THE REFORM OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES • Build a permanent Olympic Center that would be open year-round for championships • Enlarge the Olympic Games to include more sports during more days • Reduce excessive displays of nationalism during award ceremonies, such as anthems • Enlarge and revamp the membership of the International Olympic Committee • Remove team sports competition • Make the Olympic Games annual events