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The Mechanics of Interest Rate Swaps

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The Mechanics of Interest Rate Swaps

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  1. The Mechanics of Interest Rate Swaps Amazingly Presented By: Greg Mendonca

  2. Outline • Origins of interest rate swaps • “Plain Vanilla” interest rate swaps • Example of a plain vanilla swap • Comparative advantage • Other uses for swaps

  3. Origins of Interest Rate Swaps 1981 Interest Rate Rise Banks trying to protect against the rising short term interest rates World Bank and IBM Origin US Rates vs. German Rates vs. Swiss Rates IBM swapping debt obligations with World Bank in order to lower interest for both World Bank and IBM

  4. “Plain Vanilla” Swap • Two Basic Actions: • Firm A pays a fixed rate of interest to Firm B on a predetermined notional value • Firm B pays a floating rate of interest to Firm A on the same notional value • Netting of the payments amount • Fixed rate agreed upon, floating rate based on either US T-Bill or London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) plus a base point premium

  5. Interest Rates Down, Insurance Wins, YAY! Example of Plain Vanilla Swap • Banks • Lending long-term (fixed rate mortgages) • Insurance Companies • Investment portfolio (floating rate bonds) Notional Amount ------------> <------------

  6. Example cont.

  7. Theory of Comparative Advantage • Some entities have a comparative advantage: • One entity may have an advantage in fixed rate markets • One entity may have an advantage in floating rate markets • Using each entities comparative advantage they could enter an interest rate swap in order to leverage their advantage to another company and earn a spread

  8. Comparative Advantage cont. If the bank uses their comparative advantage on their commercial loan portfolio, they can earn a spread income from the swap

  9. Other Uses For Swaps • Reducing funding costs • Company looking to raise funds issues fixed rate 6 month papers and enters into swap to receive floating rate • Asset/Liability management • Changing payments streams from fixed to variable and vice versa • Speculative positions • Enter into swap take a position gaining from either a drop or rise in interest rates

  10. Remember to keep your swaps under your pillow and I’ll visit you at night! Time To Say Goodbye…