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The Wonderful World of Plants

The Wonderful World of Plants

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The Wonderful World of Plants

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  1. The Wonderful World of Plants

  2. The Basics

  3. What is a plant? • Multicellular eukaryotes • Cell walls made of cellulose • Develop from multicellular embryos • Contain Vascular Tissues (Xylem and Phloem)Xylem: Vascular Tissue Moves Water UpwardPhloem: Vascular Tissue Moves Nutrients Both up and down • Do photosynthesis to get energy (autotrophs) • Examples: trees, moss, roses

  4. Plant Cell Important Parts • Chloroplast: Carry Out photosynthesis • Chlorophyll: Green pigment • Cell Wall: made of Cellulose

  5. Chlorophyll and Wavelengths Two types of Chlorophyll absorbs different wavelengths of light. Both absorb blue and red light the best

  6. All plants are eukaryotic autotrophs • 6H20 + 6CO2→ C6H12O6 + 602 • This reaction takes place in the chloroplast with the help of a photosynthetic pigment such as chlorophyll.

  7. Root Cross Section • Responsible for uptake of water • The first root that comes from a plant is called the radicle. A root's four major functions are • 1) absorption of water and inorganic nutrients • 2) anchoring of the plant body to the ground, and supporting it, 3) storageof food and nutrients, • 4)vegetative reproduction and competition with other plants.

  8. Stomata and Gas Exchange •  The gas exchange that occurs when stomata are open facilitates photosynthesis • Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert sunlight into usable energy. • During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is taken in from the atmosphere through the stomata and oxygen is released as a waste product. • Certain factors can affect the rate of photosynthesisThree factors can limit the speed of photosynthesis: light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Without enough light, a plant cannot photosynthesise very quickly, even if there is plenty of water and carbon dioxide.

  9. Parts of a Seed • The embryo can be distinguished from the other major parts of a seed based on component parts and function. It consists of the epicotyl, hypocotyl, radicle, and one or two cotyledons. It is the one which develops into a plant with an upward growing shoot and a downward growing root system

  10. The Life Cycle of Plants

  11. Life Cycle of Plants • Plants have an alternation of generations. • The diploid (2N) phase is the sporophyte. The sporophyte makes spores. • The haploid (1N) phase is the gametophyte. The gametophyte makes gametes.

  12. For mosses, the gametophyte is the dominant form.

  13. For ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, the sporophyte is the dominant form.

  14. The Divisions of Plants

  15. Plant Divisions Plants are divided into groups based on: 1. Whether or not they have vascular conducting tissues. Xylem – moves water from the roots up to the leaves Phloem – moves sugars made in the leaves down to the roots. 2. Whether or not they make seeds. 3. Whether or not they have flowers. The four groups are: 1. bryophytes (mosses) 2. seedless vascular plants (ferns) 3. gymnosperms (cone bearers) 4. angiosperms (flowering plants)

  16. Bryophytes • Examples include mosses and liverworts.

  17. Characteristics of Bryophytes • Bryophytes do not have special tissues to conduct food and water. • They rely on osmosis to move water around their bodies. Because of this, they don’t get very tall. • They rely on water to be able to reproduce because the sperm swim through water to the eggs.

  18. Moss sporophyte and gametophyte

  19. Seedless Vascular Plants • Ferns are vascular which means they have xylem and phloem. • Xylem and phloem allow these plants to grow taller than mosses. • Ferns are seedless plants. They make spores.

  20. Ferns

  21. Ferns reproduce with spores

  22. Horsetails and club mosses are close relatives of ferns

  23. The Seed PlantsGymnosperms and Angiosperms

  24. Gymnosperms • Have vascular tissue. • Make seeds. • Do not have flowers, but do have cones. • The 1N gametophyte stage is enclosed entirely within the 2N sporophyte structure.

  25. Gymnosperm cones…male and female. Which is which?

  26. Gymnosperms include conifers and ginkgoes

  27. Angiosperms • Have vascular tissue. • Make seeds. • Do have flowers. • The 1N gametophyte stage is pretty much enclosed entirely within the 2N sporophyte structure.

  28. Angiosperms include any flowering plant…tulips, cherry trees, zinnias

  29. Flower Structure and Seed Dispersal

  30. Angiosperms • Flowers contain ovaries which protect the egg. • Somehow, sperm needs to get to the egg. • Once the egg is fertilized, it turns into a seed. • Somehow the seeds need to be dispersed – spread away from the parents. • Seeds are dispersed by fruit, sticking to the fur of animals, or spread by the wind.

  31. Flower Structure

  32. Seed dispersal

  33. Angiosperms can be Further Divided

  34. Angiosperms can be divided into Monocots and Dicots

  35. Leaf Vein Patterns Monocot Leaves: Veins are parallel Dicot Leaves: Veins are branched Dicot leaf

  36. Flowers Monocot Flower Dicot Flower

  37. Roots Monocot-roots are fibrous Dicot-one big tap root

  38. Plant Behavior

  39. Plants can maintain homeostasis.

  40. Phototropism • Phototropism is the movement of plants towards light.

  41. Gravitropism/Geotropism • Roots move down and shoots grow up in the dark in response to gravity.

  42. These plants were situated in various positions, but the shoots continued to move against gravity.

  43. Thigmotropism • Thigmotropism is a plant’s response to touch. This plant responds to a stationary object by wrapping its stem around it to anchor itself.

  44. This plant responds to touch by wilting. What advantage may this be to the plant?

  45. Photoperiodism - Some plants respond to the amount of daylight – Poinsettia turn red and flower in response to shorter days

  46. Some plants “eat” animals Considered both Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Monkey cup A.K.A. Tropical pitcher plant

  47. Sundews – insects are attracted to surface and get stuck on mucus

  48. Venus Fly Trap