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Blood PowerPoint Presentation

Blood

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Blood

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  1. Blood

  2. Blood - Introduction • Connective Tissue inside blood vessels

  3. Blood - Introduction • Composed of plasma and formed elements (rbc, wbc, and platelets)

  4. Blood - Plasma • Plasma is obtained by centrifuging the blood

  5. Blood - Serum • Serum is obtained by letting the blood clot in a test tube.

  6. Blood - Serum • Fluid that lacks clotting factors such as fibrinogen

  7. Interstitial Fluid • Fluid outside the vascular system that bathes body cells

  8. Functions of blood • Transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, heat, wastes, and hormones

  9. Functions of blood • Regulates pH, body temperature, and water content of cells

  10. Functions of blood • Prevents blood loss through clotting

  11. Functions of blood • Combats toxins and microbes through certain phagocytic white blood cells and plasma proteins

  12. Physical Characteristics of Blood • viscosity greater than that of water

  13. Physical Characteristics of Blood • Temperature 38 degrees C (100.4)

  14. Physical Characteristics of Blood • ph of 7.35 to 7.45

  15. Physical Characteristics of Blood • 8% of body weight

  16. Physical Characteristics of Blood • Volume = 4 to 6 liters

  17. Components of Blood • Blood consists of • 55% plasma • 45% Formed elements

  18. Plasma • Consists of 91.5% water and 8.5% solutes

  19. Plasma • Principal solutes include proteins (albumins, globulins, fibrinogen), nutrients, enzymes, hormones, respiratory gases, electrolytes, and waste products such as urea and bilirubin

  20. Plasma • Albumin is a transport protein for steroids

  21. Plasma • Gamma globulins are antibodies • Alpa and Beta globulins transport iron and fats

  22. Plasma • Fibrinogen has a role in clotting

  23. Formed Elements • Composed of; 1. Erythrocytes (RBCs) • Leukocytes (WBCs) • Thrombocytes (platelets)

  24. Formed Elements • Hematocrit – percentage of total blood volume occupied by red blood cells

  25. Formed Elements • Normal hematocrit for; • Male – 42-52% • Female – 37-48%

  26. Anemia • A significant drop in hematocrit

  27. Anemia • Symptoms include; • Headaches • Weakness • A feeling like your heart is pounding • Fatigue • Shortness of breath

  28. Agglutination • This process involves antibodies joining red cells together and form clumps

  29. Formation of Blood Cells • All blood cells are formed from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells

  30. Formation of Blood Cells • Pluripotent stem cells divide into myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells

  31. Formation of Blood Cells • Myeloid stem cells give rise to; • RBCs • Plateletes • All WBCs except for lymphocytes

  32. Formation of Blood Cells • Lymphoid stem cells give rise to lymphoctyes

  33. Formation of Blood Cells • In order to become mature lymphocytes, the precursor cells leave the marrow and go to the thymus, lymph nodes, and spleen

  34. Red Blood Cells • Contain the oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin

  35. Red Blood Cells • Lack nuclei

  36. Red Blood Cells • Each cell contains 280 million hemoglobin molecules

  37. Red Blood Cells • Live 120 days • Splenic macrophages remove them from circulation

  38. Red Blood Cells • Produce about 2 million red cells/second

  39. Red Blood Cells • Hemoglobin’s function is to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide

  40. Red Blood Cells • Hemoglobin is composed of four polypeptide subunits (two alpha and two beta)

  41. Red Blood Cells • Each polypeptide chain contains a central, iron-containig heme group that combines with oxygen

  42. Red Blood Cells • Hemoglobin picks up CO2 in the tissues, which it releases in the lungs

  43. Red Blood Cells • 23% of CO2 is hemoglobin-bound

  44. Red Blood Cells • 70% of CO2 is dissolved in the plasma as bicarbonate

  45. Red Blood Cells • 7% is dissolved in the plasma as CO2

  46. Red Blood Cells • Hemoglobin picks up O2 in the lungs and releases it in body tissues

  47. Red Blood Cells • 97% of O2 is carried by hemoglobin