Adrenal Gland Cortex Lauren Kent Ashley Naveira Period 6 January 8, 2014
Location Along the perimeter of the adrenal gland
Hormones • Corticosteroid hormones: • Hydrocortisone: helps control the body’s use of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates • Corticosterone: Helps suppress inflammatory reactions in the body and affects the immune system • Aldosterone: regulates the level of sodium and potassium and helps maintain blood pressure • Androgenic steroids (androgen hormones) • Converted to female and male hormones, but are produced in larger amounts by the ovaries and testes.
Homeostasis • Corticosteroid hormones: • Helps keep nutrients in balance and keeps the body healthy by regulating the immune system • Aldosterone • Prevents hypertension • Androgenic steroids (androgen hormones) • Controls the amount of reproductive hormones, to keep it in balance
Feedback Mechanisms Adrenal cortex is regulated by negative feedback, involving the hypothalamus and adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Releasing Hormones • Mineralocorticoids • Aldosterone • Increased absorption of sodium • Increased excretion of potassium and hydrogen ions • Produced in the adrenocortical zonaglomerulosa • Glucocorticoids • Cortisol • Stimulates release of amino acids from the body • Produced in response to stress • Produced in the zonafasciculata
Release – Inhibiting Hormones • Aldosterone • When there is too much blood in the circulatory system, the heart produces atrial natriuretic factor, which inhibits the release of this hormone.
Glandular Malfunction • Pheochromocytoma • Atumor that can form in the adrenal gland that is caused by producing too much adrenaline. • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia • Adisorder of the adrenal gland that prohibits it from producing enough cortisol • Addison’s Disease • Adisease in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough of many hormones
Medical Procedures • Pheochromocytoma • Surgery to remove the gland or just the tumor or medication to stop the production of excess hormones • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia • Medication can be taken to replace the hormones that are not being produced • Addison’s Disease • Take oral medication to replace the hormones that the body lacks. Additional salt may need to be added to their diet as well
Works Cited http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20102/bio%20102%20lectures/endocrine%20system/endocrin.htm http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/adrenalgland/conditioninfo/Pages/types.aspx http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/adrenalgland/conditioninfo/Pages/treatment.aspx http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=89 http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/endocrinology/adrenal_glands_85,P00399/ http://www.pennmedicine.org/health_info/body_guide/reftext/html/endo_sys_fin.html#homeostatic http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/endocrine/glands/adrenal.html