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Rethinking Nuclear Power 1. Introduction

Rethinking Nuclear Power 1. Introduction

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Rethinking Nuclear Power 1. Introduction

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  1. Rethinking Nuclear Power1. Introduction Energy units, uses, sources Social benefits, demand growth, conservation, developing world Periodic table, nuclear fission, nuclear power plants Bob Hargraves, Hanover NH

  2. The US has an energy crisis. • Energy costs are high and rising. • Carbon emissions are high and rising. • We rely on oil from unstable countries. • Trade deficit grows 10¢/minute/car. • Farming fuel raises food prices. • Wind and hydro sites are limited. • Can nuclear power help? $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

  3. US energy is 80% fossil sourced. http://www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf/brochures/aeo/aeobrochure2007.pdf

  4. Electricity is 71% fossil sourced. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html

  5. US DOE projects energy growth. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/execsummary.html

  6. US DOE projects CO2 growth. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/execsummary.html

  7. Rethinking Nuclear Power1. Introduction Energy units, uses, sources Energy and power units Converting between units World energy demand Energy sources Bob Hargraves, Hanover NH

  8. My electric energy costs $0.136 per kilowatt-hour. Bob Hargraves National Grid bill

  9. These costs are added to the cost of generating electricity. • Delivery Service—The service(s) rendered by the local utility that provides the electric service to your home or business. • Customer Charge—The cost of providing customer-related services such as metering, meter reading and billing. These fixed costs are unaffected by the actual amount of electricity you use.  • Distribution Charge—The cost of delivering electricity from the beginning of the Company’s distribution system to your home or business.  • Transmission Charge—The cost of delivering electricity from the generation company to the beginning of the Company's distribution system.  • Stranded Cost Charge—The cost associated with recovering the financial commitments made by National Grid to supply power to consumers in a regulated environment.  • System Benefits Charge—The cost of providing energy efficiency programs, low income programs, and other system benefits as required by the Public Utilities Commission.  • Consumption Tax—A tax imposed by New Hampshire law.

  10. Prefixes denote triple powers of ten.

  11. BTU is a British Thermal Unit One BTU is the energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. …approximately the energy of burning a wooden match.

  12. Energy equivalents

  13. Energy and power sources

  14. Energy examples range over 87 orders of magnitude.

  15. How many watts of heat does a person on a 2000 Calorie per day diet produce? =?

  16. Express conversion factors as 1. 1 Calorie = 1 kilocalorie 1 BTU = 0.252 kilocalories 1 kilowatt-hour = 3419 BTU 1 day = 24 hours

  17. Multiply by 1: Calories to kilocalories. …and cross off like units in numerator and denominator, just as in algebra.

  18. Multiply by 1: kilocalories to BTU.

  19. Multiply by 1: BTU to kilo watt hours.

  20. Multiply by 1: hours to days.

  21. Multiply by 1: kilowatts to watts.

  22. Hot? Spaulding Auditorium audience would melt a ton of ice an hour.

  23. How many Exxon-Valdez tanker loads would meet all US energy needs for one year? • Hints: • Exxon-Valdez carries 1.48 million BBL oil • 1 BBL oil = 6 million BTU • US economy consumes 100 quads a year

  24. You can multiply anything by 1!

  25. Multiply 100 quads by 1 x 1 x 1!

  26. Cross off like units.

  27. Do the arithmetic…

  28. Energy conversion efficiencies vary.

  29. How many truckloads of wood fuel would meet NH monthly electric use?

  30. How many truckloads of wood fuel would meet NH monthly electric use? • We need to know… • How much electric power used • How much heat needed to make the power • How much heat comes from burning wood • How much wood on a truck

  31. Get energy data from http://eia.doe.gov.

  32. NH used 926 gigawatt hours in Sept 2007. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/table5_4_b.html

  33. http://Wikipedia.org is an encyclopedia.

  34. Burning wood releases 6,500 BTU/lb.

  35. A log truck can carry 64,000 lbs.

  36. Multiply power used by 1x1x1x1. NH electric power used in September 2007 Efficiency of conversion heat to electricity Equivalence of BTU and KWH Heat of combustion of wood Pounds of wood on truck

  37. Multiply power used by 1x1x1x1. NH electric power used in September 2007 Efficiency of conversion heat to electricity Equivalence of BTU and KWH Heat of combustion of wood Pounds of wood on truck

  38. Multiply power used by 1x1x1x1. NH electric power used in September 2007 Efficiency of conversion heat to electricity Equivalence of BTU and KWH Heat of combustion of wood Pounds of wood on truck

  39. Multiply power used by 1x1x1x1. NH electric power used in September 2007 Efficiency of conversion heat to electricity Equivalence of BTU and KWH Heat of combustion of wood Pounds of wood on truck

  40. Multiply power used by 1x1x1x1. NH electric power used in September 2007 Efficiency of conversion heat to electricity Equivalence of BTU and KWH Heat of combustion of wood Pounds of wood on truck

  41. …about 22,800 truckloads a month!

  42. Homework: You can now do energy problems yourself! • A compact fluorescent light bulb using 23 watts gives the same light as a 100 watt incandescent bulb. • There are 106 million US households. • Assume 5 100 watt bulbs are replaced by 23 watt ones in each household. • Assume they are all on from 5 pm to 11 pm.

  43. Homework: You can now do energy problems yourself! • A compact fluorescent light bulb using 23 watts gives the same light as a 100 watt incandescent bulb. • There are 106 million US households. • Assume 5 100 watt bulbs are replaced by 23 watt ones in each household. • Assume they are all on from 5 pm to 11 pm. • What % of annual US electric power would be saved? • How many tons of coal a year might not be burned? • What's that percentage of US coal consumption?

  44. How much forest harvesting acreage would replace Vermont Yankee? • Vermont Yankee generates 600 MW. • Assume annual sustainable harvesting of 1/2 cord per acre. • 1 cord = 1.2 tons. • Green Mountain National Forest is 400,000 acres. • Vermont has 4,629 thousand acres of forest. http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/misc/energy_conv.html http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/fia/states/vt/vthilite97.pdf

  45. Rethinking Nuclear Power1. Introduction Social benefits, demand growth, conservation, developing world Bob Hargraves, Hanover NH

  46. Oil is the largest world energy source. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_resources_and_consumption

  47. The US consumed 99 quads in 2008. Coal 24 Nuclear 8 Imports 32 Residential 22 Commerc & Ind 50 Transportation 28 • http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/diagram1.html

  48. Lawrence Livermore flows account for losses. https://publicaffairs.llnl.gov/news/energy/energy.html

  49. Petrol supplies 4X the energy of US nuclear. https://http://www.eia.doe.gov/aer/pecss_diagram.html

  50. The world consumed 472 quads in 2006. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html