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Animal Reproduction

Animal Reproduction

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Animal Reproduction

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  1. Animal Reproduction Extension beyond the Textbook

  2. Conditions for Fertilization • Anatomy of Male & Female must be compatible • Female must be in Heat • Egg must be mature

  3. What is the function of the Male? • produce large numbers of live sex cells (spermatozoa) • contribute 1/2 chromosomes

  4. What are the Male Reproductive Organs? • Testicles - produce spermatozoa & male hormone Testosterone • Scrotom - sack which carries testicles • functions as a heat regulator • Monorchid - one fertile testicle • Cryptorchid - both testes remain in body cavity (sterile) • Castration - removal of testicles • lack sex drive • gain weight quicker

  5. What are the Male Reproductive Organs? • Epididymis - tube connects to testes • storage of spermatozoa (200 billion at a time) • spermatozoa mature as they migrate through • Vas Deferens - tube connects to epididymus • if removed, can't reproduce = vasectomy

  6. What are the Male Reproductive Organs? • Urethra - begins at bladder and continues through penis • Sigmoid Flexure - "S" shape in urethra allows for extension of penis outside of body for reproduction

  7. Accessory Sex Glands • prostate • two seminal vesicles • two cowpers glands

  8. What is the function of the Accessory Sex Glands? • provide medium for transporting sperm • adds volume • provides nutrients • cleans & flushes urinary tract

  9. Artificial Insemination

  10. What is the function of the female? • contribute 1/2 chromosomes • care for young in uterus and after birth until weaning

  11. What are the Female Reproductive Organs? • Vulva - exterior portion of reproductive tract • provides visual signs of heat • Vagina - between vulva & cervix • Cows & Ewes: semen is deposited here • Mares & Sows: semen is deposited in the cervix

  12. What are the Female Reproductive Organs? • Cervix - "Mouth of the womb" • opening into uterus • at birth cervix stretches to allowbaby to pass (most painful part) • during pregnancy cervix becomes blocked with a mucous plug to prevent infection

  13. What are the Female Reproductive Organs? • Uterine Horns - two branches of uterus • Fallopian Tube - uterine horn becomes a small tube • lined with cilia which aid in egg migration

  14. Ovaries • located at end of fallopian tubes • possesses large number of eggs in all stages of development • this is all the eggs she will ever have, unlike the male • very few eggs reach maturity • if not fertilized, the egg is reabsorbed by the body

  15. Reproduction in Males • After sexual maturity, sperm production is continuous • Testosterone is responsible for: • growth, development & activity of accessory glands • survival of spermatozoa • secondary sex characteristics:male voice, sex drive

  16. Reproduction in Males • Semen - collective term for all fluid ejaculated • sperm and fluid from accessory glands

  17. Reproduction in Females • Farm animals reach sexual maturity at 4 months (sow) to 24 months (mare), then • Female comes in heat (estrus) • Egg released by ovary • Egg travels down tube until fertilized by sperm • Estrogen - female hormone which regulates estrus

  18. What does "in heat" mean? • Heat is the time when a female is receptive to the male and will allow breeding to take place • Heat is actually divided into 4 phases of the cycle.

  19. Estrous Cycle: • Proestrus: ovary is about to release an egg • Estrus: female receptivity • Metestrus: uterus prepares for pregnancy • fertilized egg attaches to uterus • Diestrus: longest period of cycle • inactive • Estrous Cycles stop after conception, and begin soon after Parturition (birth)

  20. Females also show external signs of "Heat" • aggressive behavior • swelling and/or color change of vulva

  21. Beef Terms • A Mature Male is called a: Bull • A Mature Female is called a: Cow • The act of Giving Birth is called: Calving • Gestation = 283 days • A Castrated Male is called a: Steer • An Immature Female is called a: Heifer

  22. What do you call a mature male hog? Boar • What do you call a mature female hog? Sow • What do you call the act of giving birth? Farrowing • What do you call a castrated male hog? Barrow • What do you call an young female hog? Gilt • What is the gestation for hogs? 114 days or 3 months, 3 weeks, & 3 days

  23. Poultry Terms • What do you call a mature male? Rooster • What do you call a mature female? Hen • What do you call a young female? Pullet • What do you call a castrated male? Capon • Chickens Hatch • What is the incubation period? 21 days

  24. What do you call a mature male horse? Stallion • What do you call a mature female horse? Mare • What do you call a castrated male horse? Gelding • What do you call a young horse? foal or colt

  25. What do you call an immature female horse? Filly • What do you call the act of giving birth for horses? Foaling • What is the gestation for a horse? 330 days