Real-Time Data on the Manufacturing Floor in a Lean Manufacturing Environment Tom Lawton ADVENT DESIGN CORPORATION
As lead time decreases………….. the need for realtime data increases!
What We Will Cover • Determine how much realtime information is appropriate in a lean or Six Sigma environment • Determine how to integrate data collection and processing with an automation project • Review challenge of linking data collection and reporting of shop floor automation with existing enterprise systems.
Differing Perspectives • Typical Organization has a variety of personnel with a variety of perspectives on their organizations. • The key is to bring all of these people and all of these skills together to develop a viable solution for your organization • Automation Engineers • Information System Professionals • Manufacturing Operations Personnel • Finance • Sales and Marketing
Do You Have the Right Information? • Coordination • Schedule changes • Quality issues • Process Improvements
Realtime Data Must Be Tied to Business Objectives • Lead time as a business driver • Identification of competitive priorities & targeted results • Identification of key performance measures • Lean manufacturing efforts focussed on those activities that maximize targeted results • Dashboards for all company levels tied to key results
What do Organizations do with Manufacturing Data? • Corporate Information Systems are financially based. • Data is converted to financial information and used for making financial decisions. • Given that all companies are in business to earn a profit this is a fair way of using Corporate Information Systems.
Weakness of Traditional Information Systems • Focussing on the finances takes the emphasis off real time data gathering at the manufacturing level. • Manual or automated entry of the production results is considered adequate. • Most opportunities to improve the process are lost without a good understanding and analysis of the real time manufacturing data.
INFORMATION PARADIGM FOR A BUSINESS SYSTEM (Typical IS View) ERP EnterpriseResource Planning Each layer tends to summarize the lower layers Management Information Systems MIS Transaction Support Systems (Data Entry) TSS FACTORY FLOOR ???
AN INFORMATION PARADIGM FOR A MANUFACTURING SYSTEM (Typical Engineer’s View) BUSI- NESS ??? SupervisoryControl And Data Acquisition SCADA Each layer tends to summarize the lower layers PLC ProgrammableLogicControllers (PLCs) I/O Inputs/Outputs
Inputs - Digital • Pushbuttons • Photo-eyes • Limit Switches • Outputs - Digital • Lights • Motors • Valves • Inputs - Analog • Thermocouples • Flow Meters • Pressure Transmitters • Outputs - Analog • Motor Speed • Valves % Open Engineer’s View INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES
Engineer’s View PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) • Input/Output Modules • Analog • Digital • Special • Operator Interface • Lights and Buttons • LCD Line Displays • Dedicated Terminals • PB Replacement & Alarming • Platform: • Many Vendors • Simple – no HDD to fail • Fast – 30 msec scans • Limited Memory
Engineer’s View SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION (SCADA) • Supervisory • Connects to PLCs • Serves as the Operator Interface • Sends Commands to PLCs • Recipe/Sequence Manager • Data Acquisition • Stores Data from PLCs • Reporting • Trending • Database Query • PC Platform • Windows Operating System Predominately • Off-The-Shelf Software (Usually) • Storage Media (HDD)
ERP BUSI- NESS MIS TSS SCADA PLC FACTORY FLOOR I/O WHAT ACTUALLY DEVELOPS? Information Systems View Engineering View
A Typical Manufacturing Situation Business System IS Domain Paper and People Systems GAP Factory Floor Engr./Maint. Domain
Business System M.E.S. Manufacturing Execution Systems “The Gap” Factory Floor MANUFACTURING EXECUTION SYSTEMS (MES)
CONTROL & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES ARE MERGING • Both are starting to use the same infrastructure. IT and Engineering both understand the Ethernet • Higher Ethernet speeds and switching make the network viable for control • Business systems need timely, accurate information from the plant floor if they are to consider using this potential to provide more effective system control & continue lean improvement
IS DEPT HARDWARE SOFTWARE INFO & CONTROL REPORTING Server Farm Large Computers Large Database ERP/MRP II Fully Integrated Supply Chain Internet Portal Or Extranet Client/Server PCs Large Database Web-based Networked to Business System Intranet Portal Industrial PC Bar Coding Small Database, SCADA SW Small Control Network Ad Hoc PLC & Terminal PLC Program Programmable Control Printed Graphs Office PC Spreadsheet Electrical Control By Hand or Printout ENGINEERING Levels of Control & Information Bus. System MES SCADA PLC I/O
Why is the Right Data Important? “Data, Data, everywhere and nothing do we know.” • Useful Data becomes Information • Useful Information becomes the knowledge base for intelligent decisions and future planning. • If knowledge is money then useful data is the currency of the manufacturing floor. As lead time decreases, need for realtime data increases!
Collecting the Right Realtime Data • What is the purpose of collecting the data? • Will the data tell us what we need to know? • Will we be able to take action on the collected data?
Realtime Data to Control VariationSix Sigma • Supports CTQ objectives (3.4ppm defects) • Enhances Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control methodology (DMAIC) • Online measurement of process parameters • Provide realtime controls as limits are understood Process Control
Realtime Data to Reduce Waste In Office Functions • Purchasing, Engineering, Production Control, Order Entry • Faster order entry • Schedule changes based on actual setup and production output capabilities
How Can Automation Help? • Assess the operation using a Value Stream Map and/or PFDs (Product families & Production data) • Evaluate the layout and flow • Identify lean improvements & kaizens without automation • Implement lean improvements using VSM plan • Identify lean automation opportunities & required data collection • Design and implement lean automation • Start the cycle again!
Why Lean Automation? “After implementing lean improvements such as cellular manufacturing and setup reduction, selective automation can add value and reduce human variability.” Richard Schonberger, June 2002
Lean ManufacturingConcepts & Techniques Used most frequently prior to Automation • Value Stream Mapping • Flow: Setup Reduction, Cellular Manufacturing, Batch Size Reduction, Visual Workplace, Layout Improvement • Pull: Kanban Systems, Supply Chain Management,Point of Use • Others: Quality Improvement & Analysis, Total Productive Maintenance,Training
Value Stream MapAn Assessment Tool • The value stream map follows the production path from beginning to end and shows a visual representation of every process in the material and information flows • Shows how the shop floor currently operates • Foundation for the future state
Levels of Automation As defined by the Lean Enterprise Institute in “Creating Continuous Flow”
How to Associate Levels of Control & Information and Automation? IS DEPT ENGINEERING Bus. System MES SCADA PLC I/O Depends on the Lead Time & Level of Control
Low Productivity Electrical Device AssemblyThe Challengein Two Steps • Client wanted wave soldering and robotic pick and place • Functional operational layout • Quality problems but no data • Extensive material staging • Initially, 13 people in Aurora cell • Low output: 300 units/day • Lead time 2 to 3 weeks
Lean Techniques UsedBefore Automation • Process flow diagrams • Cellular Manufacturing & Layout • Balance Cycle Times Between Work Stations • 5S • Reduce Batch Size & parts staging • Quality Data Collection & Analysis (Reduce Reject Rate)
WORKSTATION CYCLE TIME: 25sec., 1.25 min. PER 3 UNITS REJECT DATA 2 LED SOLDER & CUT 7 TEST SAMPLES 4 5 6 8 9 ATTACH BACK COVER, STAKE STRAP & ATTACH STRAP ASSEMBLY #1 COLD STAKE TEST PCBs CONTACTS ASSEMBLY & SOLDER BUTTON & BATTERY ASSEMBLY LABEL GLUE SWITCH/ ATTACH STRAP PACK LED PLACEMENT 1 INSERT SWITCH ACTIVATOR LED SOLDER & CUT REJECT DATA TEST PCBs 3 ASSIST Cell Changes • Cold staking fixtures • Powered screw drivers • Light test fixture • Soldering fixture REJECT DATA AFTER CHANGES WORKSTATION CYCLE TIME: 25sec., 1.25 min. PER 3 UNITS 4 TEST SAMPLES 1 2 3 5 6 ATTACH BACK COVER, STAKE STRAP & ATTACH STRAP PCBs from supplier ASSEMBLY #1 COLD STAKE TEST PCBs CONTACTS ASSEMBLY & SOLDER BUTTON & BATTERY ASSEMBLY LABEL GLUE SWITCH/ ATTACH STRAP PACK INSERT SWITCH ACTIVATOR REJECT DATA
With Lean Automation Level 1 and PC Data CollectionThe Results • Balanced cell at 24 sec per work station • Two U-shaped cells • 1,100 units/day per cell vs 300 • 6 people per cell vs 13 • Faster identification of quality problems using Excel spreadsheets • Point of use storage • Better teamwork • Manual Status Board
Levels of Automation New Cell As defined by the Lean Enterprise Institute in “Creating Continuous Flow”
IS DEPT HARDWARE SOFTWARE INFO & CONTROL REPORTING Server Farm Large Computers Large Database ERP/MRP II Fully Integrated Supply Chain Internet Portal Or Extranet Client/Server PCs Large Database Web-based Networked to Business System Intranet Portal Industrial PC Bar Coding Small Database, SCADA SW Small Control Network Ad Hoc PLC & Terminal PLC Program Programmable Control Printed Graphs Office PC Spreadsheet Electrical Control By Hand or Printout ENGINEERING Levels of Control & Information Bus. System MES New Cell SCADA PLC I/O PC Tracking of Quality Data Manual Status Boards
Reducing Lead Time & Improving Data Flow Steel Panel FabricationThe Challenge • Client wanted to reduce lead time to less than one week • Automated equipment had been installed but had problems • Panel rejects & rework • Material flow problems • No process controls or data collection
Lean Techniques UsedBefore Automation • Value Stream Mapping • Process flow diagrams • Quality Data Collection & Analysis (Reduce Reject Rate) • Setup time analysis
Value Stream Map (Current State) Blanket Annual Purchase Order with Daily Releases Production Control (normally working 24 to 48 hours ahead of promised shipment) Randomly Placed Orders (normally single unit orders) Various Distributors (~ 24 for Smith Corp. & ~ 6 for Jones Systems Sheet Galvanized Steel (4’ by 8’ or cut) Sheet Galvanized Steel (4’ by 8’ or cut) Sheet Galvanized Steel (4’ by 8’ or cut) Sheet Galvanized Steel (4’ by 8’ or cut) Average volume of 1000 systems per month in peak season. Customers are mainly distributors. There are a few dealers. Daily Production Reports Daily Production Reports Up to an average of 130,000 lbs daily in peak season Daily Shipping Schedule Daily Shipments In Straight Panel Dept. Shear Notch Specialty Punch Corner Punch Bend Stake & Label Add Z Brace Rack Shipping Radius & Band 1 Accurshear Automated Shear (P-3) 1 Manual Notcher (S-23) & 1 Automated Notcher (R-3) 4 Semi-Auto Punches 3 Semi-Auto Punches (S-1, S-2, & S-3) 1 Manual Brake (R-7) & 1 Automated Brake (R-13) 1 Automated Machine (R-8) 1 Automated Machine (ACR) 1 Manual Table, 1 Jig-less Machine (R12), & 1 Jig Machine (R1) I 2 to 5 days depending on pre-cut size 1 Material Handler 1 Operator 1/2 Operator 0 Operators 1 Operator 1/2 Operator 1/2 Operator 1/2 Operator 2 Operators 2 Operators C/T = 4 min. C/O = N/A Rel. = 99% C/T = 2 min. C/O = 4 min Rel. = 95% C/T = 2 min. C/O = N/A Rel. = 99% C/T = 2 min. C/O = up to 30 min. Rel. = 99% C/T = 5 min. C/O = 30 to 60 sec. Rel. = 90% C/T = 2 min. C/O = N/A Rel. = 99% C/T = 7 min. C/O = N/A Rel. = 98% to 99% C/T = N/A C/O = N/A Rel. = 100% C/T = 8 min. (average) C/O = 2 to 30 min. Rel. = 80% to 100% 2 to 5 Working Days, Lead Time 32 minutes, Value-Added Time 2 to 5 days 4 min. 2 min. 2 min. 2 min. 5 min. 2 min. 7 min. 8 min.
INITIAL IMPROVEMENT CONCEPTS Improve reliability and changeover capability of R1 and R12 machines. Reduce panel reject rate. Work to 1 to 2 days lead time Radius & Band 1 Manual Table, 1 Jig-less Machine (R12), & 1 Jig Machine (R1) Rack 1 Material Handler 2 Operators C/T = 8 min. (average) C/O = 2 to 30 min. Rel. = 80% to 100% C/T = N/A C/O = N/A Rel. = 100% 2 to 5 Working Days, Lead Time 8 min.
R13 Process ImprovementsSeparating Process & Machine Issues • Common setup procedure • Replace measurement gages • Established process capability • Implemented process controls for panel dimensions • Identified realtime data requirements • Implemented PM program
Levels of Automation R13 As defined by the Lean Enterprise Institute in “Creating Continuous Flow”
Lean Automation: Level 2 • New Radius Bending Machine R13 • Operate as a cell • Runs two product families • Changeover in less than 5 sec. between product families • Cycle time reduced from 5 min. to 1.5 min. • PLC internal data collection and Ethernet output & SCADA system
PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS • Automated band cutting • Servo driven adjustments from panel bar codes • Online radius measurement and tracking
IS DEPT HARDWARE SOFTWARE INFO & CONTROL REPORTING Server Farm Large Computers Large Database ERP/MRP II Fully Integrated Supply Chain Internet Portal Or Extranet Client/Server PCs Large Database Web-based Networked to Business System Intranet Portal Industrial PC Bar Coding Small Database, SCADA SW Small Control Network Ad Hoc PLC & Terminal PLC Program Programmable Control Printed Graphs Office PC Spreadsheet Electrical Control By Hand or Printout ENGINEERING Levels of Control & Information • R13 has PLC data collection • Internal Ethernet to export data • Internal SCADA system Bus. System R13 MES SCADA PLC I/O Challenge is MES!
Process Controls & System Status Realtime Data Collection for Six Sigma Analysis Diagnostics for Rapid Identification of Problems
Across the “Great Divide” Level 4 Automation