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Herbert Hoover, Relief Efforts (1931) PowerPoint Presentation
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Herbert Hoover, Relief Efforts (1931)

Herbert Hoover, Relief Efforts (1931)

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Herbert Hoover, Relief Efforts (1931)

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  1. Herbert Hoover, Relief Efforts (1931) Main Points: 1. Relying on the Federal government in times of crisis will only hinder our country in future times of need. “My own conviction is strongly that if we break down this sense of responsibility of individual generosity to individual and mutual self-help in the country in times of national difficulty and if we start appropriations of this character we have not only impaired something infinitely valuable in the life of the American people but have struck at the roots of self-government.” “The opening of the doors of the Federal Treasury is likely to stifle this giving and thus destroy far more resources than the proposed charity from the Federal Government.” “Federal aid in such cases encourages the expectation of paternal care on the part of the Government and weakens the sturdiness of our national character, while it prevents the indulgence among our people of that kindly sentiment and conduct which strengthens the bonds of a common brotherhood.”

  2. Herbert Hoover, Relief Efforts (1931) 2. It is possible to provide relief for our nation through self-help and other organizations, aside from the assistance of the Federal Treasury. “The basis of successful relief in national distress is to mobilize and organize the infinite number of agencies of self-help in the community. That has been the American way of relieving distress among our own people and the country is successfully meeting its problem in the American way today.” 3. There have been many attempts and charitable donations made to help with the nations two major problems of drought and unemployment. “The Red Cross established committees in every drought county, comprising the leading citizens of those counties, with instructions to them that they were to prevent starvation among their neighbors and, if the problem went beyond local resources, the Red Cross would support them.” “The Red Cross…can command the resources with which to meet any call for human relief in prevention of hunger and suffering in drought areas and that they accept this responsibility.” “…measures of mutual self-help have been developed such as those to maintain wages, to distribute employment equitably, to increase construction work by industry, to increase Federal construction work from a rate of about $275 million a year prior to the depression to a rate now of over $750 million a year…”

  3. Herbert Hoover, Relief Efforts (1931) 4. I will do everything in my power to prevent suffering in my country. “I am willing to pledge myself that, if the time should ever come that the voluntary agencies of the country together with the local and State governments are unable to find resources with which to prevent hunger and suffering in my country, I will ask the aid of every resource of the Federal Government because I would no more see starvation amongst our countrymen than would any Senator or Congressman.” “The American people are doing their job today. They should be given a chance to show whether they wish to preserve the principles of individual and local responsibility and mutual self-help before they embark on what I believe is a disastrous system.” Questions: If Hoover had relied upon the Federal aid of the government during the start of the Great Depression would the outcome have been any different? Should Hoover be blamed for the downward spiral into depression?

  4. Herbert Hoover, Financing Relief Efforts (1931) Main Points: 1. The best way to help people during times of national difficulty is through mutual self-help and voluntary giving. My own conviction is strongly that if we break down this sense of responsibility of individual generosity to individual and mutual self-help in the country in time of national difficulty and if we start appropriations of this character we have not only impaired something infinitely valuable in the life of the American people but have struck at the roots of self-government. (p. 109)

  5. Herbert Hoover, Financing Relief Efforts (1931) 2. Federal aid to the hungry and poor encourages expectations of future paternal care and weakens Americans’ self-reliant character. It also weakens Americans’ willingness to help each other and give to each other, and thus enfeebles the bonds of common brotherhood. Quotation of President Grover Cleveland by President Herbert Hoover: The friendliness and charity of our countrymen can always be relied upon to relieve their fellow citizens in misfortune. This has been repeatedly and quite lately demonstrated. Federal aid in such cases encouraged the expectation of paternal care on the part of the Government and weakens the sturdiness of our national character, while it prevents the indulgence among our people of that kindly sentiment and conduct which strengthens the bonds of a common brotherhood. (p. 110) President Herbert Hoover: The help being daily extended by neighbors, by local and national agencies, by municipalities, by industry and a great multitude of organizations throughout the country today is many times any appropriation yet proposed. The opening of the doors of the Federal Treasury is likely to stifle this giving and thus destroy far more resources than the proposed charity from the Federal Government. (p. 110)

  6. Herbert Hoover, Financing Relief Efforts (1931)

  7. Herbert Hoover, Financing Relief Efforts (1931) Main Points: 1. The best way to help people during times of national difficulty is through mutual self-help and voluntary giving. My own conviction is strongly that if we break down this sense of responsibility of individual generosity to individual and mutual self-help in the country in time of national difficulty and if we start appropriations of this character we have not only impaired something infinitely valuable in the life of the American people but have struck at the roots of self-government. (p. 109)

  8. Herbert Hoover, Financing Relief Efforts (1931) 2. Federal aid to the hungry and poor encourages expectations of future paternal care and weakens Americans’ self-reliant character. It also weakens Americans’ willingness to help each other and give to each other, and thus enfeebles the bonds of common brotherhood. Quotation of President Grover Cleveland by President Herbert Hoover: The friendliness and charity of our countrymen can always be relied upon to relieve their fellow citizens in misfortune. This has been repeatedly and quite lately demonstrated. Federal aid in such cases encouraged the expectation of paternal care on the part of the Government and weakens the sturdiness of our national character, while it prevents the indulgence among our people of that kindly sentiment and conduct which strengthens the bonds of a common brotherhood. (p. 110) President Herbert Hoover: The help being daily extended by neighbors, by local and national agencies, by municipalities, by industry and a great multitude of organizations throughout the country today is many times any appropriation yet proposed. The opening of the doors of the Federal Treasury is likely to stifle this giving and thus destroy far more resources than the proposed charity from the Federal Government. (p. 110)

  9. Roosevelt consciously abandoned the term “progressive” and chose instead to employ “liberal” to define himself and his administration. In so doing, he transformed “liberalism” from a shorthand for weak government and laissez-faire economics into belief in an activist, socially conscious state, an alternative both to socialism and to unregulated capitalism. (Foner, The Story of American Freedom, pp. 201-204.) Redefining Liberalism Freedom, Hoover insisted, meant unfettered economic opportunity for the enterprising individual. Far from being an element of liberty, the quest for economic security was turning Americans into “lazy parasites” dependent on the state. For the remainder of his life, Hoover continued to call himself a “liberal,” even though, he charged, the word had been “polluted and raped of all its real meanings.” (Foner, The Story of American Freedom, p. 205.)

  10. Socialist Party Platform, 1932 • The Capitalist system is breaking down. Capitalism leads to unemployment and exploitation of workers, but protects the rich industry owners. • “Unemployment and poverty are inevitable products of our present system. Under capitalism the few own our industries. The many do the work. The wage earners and farmers are compelled to give a large part of their labor to the few. The many in the factories, mines, shops, offices and on the farms obtain but a scanty income and are able to buy back only a part of the goods that can be produced in such abundance by our mass industries…” • Vote Socialist!! We will create a society with only one class, the working class. • “The Socialist Party is to-day the one democratic party of the workers whose program would remove the causes of class struggles, class antagonisms, and social evils inherent in the capitalist system.”

  11. Socialist Party Platform, 1932 • Socialism will solve America’s problems and improve the lives of American workers by using the government’s awesome power to redistribute capital and provide for social ownership of industry. • We propose “to transfer the principal industries of the country from private ownership and autocratic, cruelly inefficient management to social ownership and democratic control…” • Questions to Consider • Is there any similarity between the Socialist platform and Roosevelt’s New Deal? • Why do most leftist movements lose momentum during renewed periods of prosperity?

  12. Source: http://www.drfurfero.com/books/231book/ch03f1.html

  13. Inaugural Address (1933)Franklin D. Roosevelt Presented by David Mitchell

  14. Main Points • 1. “We have nothing to fear, but fear itself.” The nation will survive this disaster. • “This great nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper.” • 2. Everyone is facing the difficulty of the Depression. • “government of all kinds face curtailment, the withered leaves of industrial enterprise lie on every side; farmers find no markets for their produce; the savings of many years in thousands of families are gone.”

  15. Main Points Cont. • 3. Unemployed Americans face the main troubles of the Depression. • “More important, a host of unemployed citizens face the grim problem of existence, and an equally great number toil with little return.” • 4. People of this generation know nothing about helping others. • “They only know the rules of a generation of self-seekers.”

  16. Main Points Cont. • 5. We need to get people to work and action is the answer to the problem. • “Our greatest primary task is to put people to work.” • “Restoration calls, however, not for changes in ethics alone. This Nation asks for action, and action now.”

  17. Main Points Cont. • 6. As a nation we can get through this together. • “Hand in hand with this we must frankly recognize the overbalance of population in our industrial centers and, by engaging on a national scale in a redistribution, of endeavor to provide a better use of the land for best fitted for the land.

  18. Main Points Cont. • 7. Foreign trade is not important right now, getting the nation back on track is. Also our foreign policy is to respect the rights of other countries just like good neighbors. • “I shall spare no effort to restore world trade by international economic readjustment, but the emergency at home can not wait on that accomplishment.” • In the field of world policy I would dedicate this Nation to the policy of the good neighbor-the neighbor who resolutely respects himself and, because he does so, respects the rights of others- the neighbor who respects his obligation and respects the sanctity of his agreements in and with a world of neighbors.

  19. Main Points Cont. • 8. The normal procedures of government may work, but the government may need to change to combat this disaster. • “But it may be that an unprecedented demand and need for undelayed action may call for temporary departure from that normal balance of public procedure.”

  20. Main Points Cont. • 9. America has many natural resources and hard working people. The Depression is due to the money changers or leaders of big business. • Our distress comes from no failure of substance… Nature still offers her bounty and human efforts have multiplied it. • There must be an end to a conduct in banking and in business which to often has given to a sacred trust the likeness of callous and selfish wrongdoing.”

  21. Main Points Cont. • 10. He would invoke emergency powers to solve the problems of the Depression. • “I shall ask the Congress for the one remaining instrument to meet the crisis-broad Executive power to wage a war against the emergency, as great as the power that would be given to me if we were in fact invaded by a foreign foe.”

  22. Main Points Cont. • 11. The government needs to create and implement safeguards to help stop another Depression. • “Finally, in our progress toward a resumption of work we require two safeguards against a return of the evils of the old order….”

  23. Questions to Consider • Why, unlike the President before him, did Roosevelt consider big business to be trouble? • Why was there immediate action instead of a gradual set of actions? • Does Roosevelt suggest any radical alterations in American politics or society?

  24. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address (1933) Main Point 1 • American society is being seriously threatened by outsiders. • “…at no previous time has American security been as seriously threatened from without as it is today…” • “…the democratic way of life is at this moment being directly assailed in every part of the world- assailed either by arms or by secret spreading of poisonous propaganda by those who seek to destroy unity and promote discord in nations still at peace.” • “…I find it necessary to report that the future and the safety of our country and of our democracy are overwhelmingly involved in the events far beyond our borders.”

  25. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address (1933) Main Point 2 • America needs to be prepared to go to war. • “In times like these it is immature- and incidentally untrue- for anybody to brag that an unprepared America, single-handed, and with one hand tied behind its back, can hold off the whole world.” • “When the dictators are ready to make war upon us, they will not wait for and act of war on our part.”

  26. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address (1933) Main Point 2 Contd. • “Therefore, the immediate need is a swift and driving increase in our armament productions…” • “I also ask this Congress for authority and for funds sufficient to manufacture additional munitions and war supplies of many kinds, to be turned over to those nations which are now in actual war with aggressor nations.” • “They do not need manpower. They do need billions of dollars’ worth of the weapons of defense…”

  27. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address (1933) Main Point 4 • Look forward to a world founded on freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. These four freedoms are what differentiates the United States from other nations. • “In future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms.” • “The first is freedom of speech and expression everywhere in the world.” • “The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way everywhere in the world.

  28. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address (1933) Main Point 4 Contd. • “The third is freedom from want, which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants everywhere in the world.” • “The fourth is freedom from fear- which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor- anywhere in the world.

  29. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address (1933) Historical Significance The Four Freedoms set the stage for our entrance into World War II. The speech gave a good indication that the United States would join the war efforts. By joining the war efforts, the United States would be fighting for the four freedoms, which are, freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear.

  30. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address (1933) Questions • Would you have supported Roosevelt in his endeavor to supply other nations with weapons of defense? • Were Roosevelt’s critics fair in charging him with sneaking the U.S. into World War II?

  31. Harry S. Trumanin the Military • Harry S. Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri on May 8, 1884. • In 1905, shortly after graduating from high school, Truman served in the Missouri National Guard. • Part of the 129th Field Artillery and sent to France, he and his unit saw action in several different campaigns. • He was promoted to captain, and after the war he joined the reserves eventually rising to the rank of colonel.

  32. Harry and Bess Truman • On June 28, 1919, Truman married Elizabeth Virginia Wallace. • Their only child, Mary Margaret, was born on February 17, 1924. • He ran a men's clothing store in Kansas City but due to the post-war recession it failed. • Truman began politics in 1922 as one of three judges of the Jackson County Court. • In 1934, Truman was elected to the United States Senate where he gained national prominence as chairman of the Senate Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program.

  33. President Harry S. Truman • On January 20, 1945, he took the vice-presidential oath, and after President Roosevelt's unexpected death, he was sworn in as the nations' thirty-third President. • Truman's presidency focused on foreign policy which was centered on the prevention of Soviet influence by which he proposed The Truman Doctrine.

  34. Main Point 1: At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The alternatives are between a free society and totalitarianism. The choice is too often not a free one. • “The peoples of a number of countries of the world have recently had totalitarian regimes forced upon them against their will. This imposed aggression undermines the foundations of international peace and the security of the United States.” • “Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this fateful hour, the effect will be far reaching to the West as well as to the East.” • Sub-Point 1: One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. • “We shall not realize our objectives, unless we are willing to help free peoples to maintain their free institutions and their national integrity against aggressive movements that seek to impose upon them totalitarian regimes.” • “If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world-and we shall surely endanger the welfare of this Nation.” • Sub-Point 2: The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms. • “The seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured by misery and want. They spread and grow in the evil soil of poverty and strife. They reach their full growth when the hope of a people for a better life has died.” • “If Greece should fall under the control of an armed minority, the effect upon its neighbor, Turkey, would be immediate and serious. Confusion and disorder might well spread throughout the entire Middle East.”

  35. Main Point 2: I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities orby outside pressures. • “One of the primary objectives of the foreign policy of the U.S. is the creation of conditions in which we and other nations will be able to work out a way of life free from coercion.” • “This was a fundamental issue in the war with Germany and Japan. Our victory was won over countries which sought to impose their will, and their way of life, upon other nations.” • Main Point 3: I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. • “Great responsibilities have been placed upon us by the swift movement of events.” • “The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedom.” • “Our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political process.”

  36. J. Edgar Hoover, The Communist Menace (1947) • The Communist Menace • Main Points • The greatest threat of communism is not the number Communists in this country, but their ability to insert themselves into positions of power and their ability to persuade others through lies and deception. Americans should FEAR the communist infiltration. • “What is important is the claim of the Communists themselves that for every party member there are 10 others ready, willing, and able to do the party’s work. Herein lies the greatest menace of communism. For these are the people who infiltrate and corrupt various spheres of American life. So rather than the size of the Communist Party the way to weigh its true importance is by testing its influence, its ability to infiltrate.” • “…When the Communists overthrew the Russian government there was one Communist for every 2,277 persons in Russia. In the United States today there is one Communist for every 1,814 persons in the country…”

  37. J. Edgar Hoover, The Communist Menace (1947) • 2. American programs to help society such as, social security, veterans’ benefits, and welfare are all communist ideas used to lure the support of unsuspecting citizens. • “The American progress which all good citizens seek, such as old-age security, houses for veterans, child assistance and a host of others is being adopted as window dressing by the Communists to conceal their true aims and entrap gullible followers.” • 3. The Communist Party of the United States intends on destroying the American businessperson, take over our government, and throw the whole world into revolution. • “The Communist movement in the United States…stands for the destruction of free enterprise, and it stands for the creation of a “Soviet of the United States” and ultimate world revolution.”

  38. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address (1961) Main Points • 1. The People of United States expect the President and the Congress to find answers to the problems that are plaguing America. • “Our people expect their President and the Congress to find essential agreement on issues of great moment, the wise resolution of which will better shape the future of the Nation.”

  39. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address (1961) Main Points Cont. • 2. America is the most influential and most productive nation in the world. America’s basic purposes has been to keep the peace, help with progress in human achievement, and enhance liberty in other nations. • “Despite these holocausts America is today the strongest, the most influential and most productive nation in the world.” • “America’s leadership and prestige depend, not merely upon our unmatched material progress, riches and military strength, but on how we use our power in the interests of world peace and human betterment. • “Throughout America’s adventure in free government, our basic purposes have been to keep the peace; to foster progress in human achievement; and to enhance liberty, dignity and integrity among people and among nations.”

  40. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address (1961) Main Points Cont. • 3. The troubles around the world deserve our attention. The main establishment that Americans have keeping peace in the world is with our military. There has to be a balance in government. We have to watch government so not let too much power rise and the misuse of the military. • “Progress toward these noble goals is persistently threatened by the conflict now engulfing the world. It commands our whole attention, absorbs our very beings.” • “We face a hostile ideology….” • “A vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment. Our arms must be mighty, ready for instant action, so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction.”

  41. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address (1961) Main Points Cont. • 3. Cont. • “This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence-economic, political, even spiritual-is felt in every city, every State house, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all involved; so is the very structure of our society.”

  42. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address (1961) Main Points Cont. • 3. Cont. • “But each proposal must be weighed in the light of a broader consideration: the need to maintain balance in and among national programs.” • “Good judgment seeks balance and progress; lack of it eventually finds imbalance and frustration.” • “In councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.” • “We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes.”

  43. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address (1961) Main Points Cont. • 4. Americans have a lot of time. We must look to the future where for the sake of our children. We must disarm and learn to do get along with each other without violence, but with intellect and good purposes. • “we must avoid the impulse to live for today, plundering, for our own ease and convenience, the precious resources of tomorrow.” • “We cannot mortgage the material assets of our grandchildren…” • “Disarmament, with mutual honor and confidence, is to a continuing imperative.” • “Together we must learn how to compose differences, not with arms, but with intellect and decent purpose.”

  44. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address (1961) Main Points Cont. • 5. I ask all the peoples of the world to try to aspire to America’s example to enjoy all the freedoms and get rid of all the evils of the world. • “that all who yearn freedom may experience its spiritual blessings; that those who have freedom will understand also” • “to the needs of others will learn charity; that the scourges of poverty; disease and ignorance will be made to disppear from the earth, and that, in the goodness of time, all peoples will come to live together in a peace guaranteed by the binding force of mutual respect and love.”

  45. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address (1961) Questions to consider? • Since Eisenhower says the building of the military is the best way to maintain peace, but he says disarmament is needed to create peace. Why does he say that? • Has any part of Eisenhower’s warning come true?

  46. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address (1961) Historical Significance • The audience that Eisenhower was speaking to was the American people and the government defense contractors. • This was very historical because no president has ever spoke out like this before. It was his last days in office so he decided why not speak out against the defense industry. • He was the world to gain peace by getting rid of all their weapons and quit building them also.

  47. U.S. Supreme Court (1954) Brown v. Board of Education By :Jackson Boyd

  48. OliverBrown U.S. Supreme Court, Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

  49. U.S. Supreme Court, Brown v. Board of Education (1954) UnitedStates Segregated

  50. Chief Justice Warren U.S. Supreme Court, Brown v. Board of Education (1954) …The plaintiffs contend that segregated public schools are not “equal” and cannot be made “equal,” and that hence they are deprived of the equal protection of the laws…