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All these Sky Pixels Are Yours

All these Sky Pixels Are Yours

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All these Sky Pixels Are Yours

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  1. All these Sky Pixels Are Yours The evolution of telescopes and CCD Arrays: The Coming Data Nightmare

  2. Once Upon a Time: Life Was Simple • One Big Telescope • One Thick Mirror • One Lousy Detector

  3. Old School • But No QE

  4. Thick Mirrors • Made the support structure of the telescopes very expensive • Capital Cost scaled as A3 • Would be limiting factor • Thermal Issues • 1948-1982

  5. Solution: Develop Thin Mirrors • Lower Cost for Support Structures • Thermal Issues are less

  6. Next: Combine Individual Light Sources • First done at the Multiple Mirror Telescope which was commissioned in 1982

  7. Thin to Segmented Mirrors • Thin Mirror Technology (including Hubble) would dominate from 1982 to about 1998 • Keck 10 meter segmented mirror

  8. What about Detectors? • Photographic/Film is horrible  non linear and no QE • Need a digital detector • Boyle and Smith 1969 CCD  Nobel Prize

  9. Scalability of CCD Construction

  10. 335 Million Pixels

  11. Optical Interferometer • Can it work at short wavelengths to combine the light from many mirrors?

  12. Real Life Complications

  13. Towards a Full Sky Assault

  14. Europeans Do Better

  15. 2x8.4 = 11.5 meters

  16. World’s Biggest Single Aperture

  17. 24.5 Meter Telescope Coming • Giant Magellan Telescope • 7 x 8.4 mirrors

  18. The Next Big Thing • A 33 GigaPixel Digital Camera

  19. But is Big Aperture = Big Science • Historically not – Historically its survey instruments that advance the field. • Here comes the LSST

  20. Site finalized in 2009

  21. LSST Concept • Single 8.4 M mirror • 3 degree FOV (!) • 80% encircled energy = 0.2” (Like HST) • 10s integration equivalent to 10hr integration with 200 inch telescope. • There are 40,000 square degrees in the sky • So …

  22. WOW!

  23. Relentless Image Acquisition

  24. Lots of Hardware

  25. Lots of Design Issues

  26. Focal Plane Is curved

  27. But Can this Work? Each image = 132 Gbyte 240 Images per hour = 32 Terrabytes 10 hours = 320 TB 4 Day Survey = 1.28 PB Rinse and repeat and each pixel contains information!