The Nile River • Egypt was called “The Gift of the Nile” • Without the Nile, Egyptian civilization would not have developed • Regular flood patterns • Compare to Mesopotamia?
Egypt’s Geography • Egypt’s natural defenses • Sahara Desert • Nile Cataracts • Result?
Writing • Hieroglyphics- originally pictograms; evolved to contain some phonetic elements • Papyrus • Early writing was used for business and administration • Eventually used for stories, prayers, laws and instructions • Rosetta Stone - translation
The People • Mixed ethnicity
Kingdoms • Early dynasty- Egypt unified by Menes (created the first dynasty) • Old Kingdom- Great pyramids built • Middle Kingdom- arts flourish • Intermediate period- country divided • New Kingdom- Strong rulers, i.e. Ramses II
Men and Gods • Polytheistic • Pharaohs were considered gods • Major Gods • Amon-Ra, Osiris, Isis, Horus, Seth, Thoth, Anubis • Mummified people: preserve body for use in afterlife
How is the Egyptian view of the afterlife different from Mesopotamia’s?, how is it the same?
Government • Unified kingdom • Strong central government (what is evidence of this?) • Is Egypt’s govt. different or the same as Mesopotamia?
Architecture • Pyramids • Tombs • Statues • Temples • Greatest architecture of the early civilizations
The Indus Valley Civilization • Located along the Indus river in modern-day Pakistan • 3300–1300 BCE, flowered 2600–1900 BCE • Flourished for 1000 years, then disappeared without a trace • Major cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Harappa • Mohenjo-Daro • India
Features • Well-organized cities • Laid out in a grid pattern, i.e. they were? • Had toilets, plumbing and irrigation
Disappearance • No one knows for sure • Theories: • Earthquake • Mudslide • Overrun by Aryans • Climate change