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River Valley Civilizations

River Valley Civilizations

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River Valley Civilizations

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  1. River Valley Civilizations

  2. GEOGRAPHY

  3. Draw ON MAP Nile River

  4. Nile River Valley

  5. NOW DRAW and label THE GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES ON YOUR MAP • Desert – brown • Water - blue

  6. Isolated because of geography • North – Mediterranean Sea • East – desert Red Sea • West – Sahara Desert • South – Cataracts (rapids) on Nile

  7. Rivers – blueFertile Crescent - green Tigris River Euphrates River Fertile Crescent

  8. Mesopotamia • Means “land between two rivers” (Euphrates and Tigris Rivers) • No physical boundaries to protect it • Constant invasions by outsiders • Lots of different civilizations • Phoenician • Babylonian • Sumerian

  9. Tigris River Euphrates River

  10. Indus River

  11. Indus River Valley • Himalaya – highest mountains in the world • Monsoons – seasonal wind pattern • Indus Valley people depended on them • Two major Indus cities were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro

  12. Remains of Harappa Mohenjo-Daro

  13. Yellow River (Huang He)

  14. China was isolated from the west because of geography: • Mountains • Deserts

  15. Yangtze River (Chang Jiang)

  16. Social

  17. Social Overview • All early civilizations had social classes • India developed caste system • Women were inferior to men • Egypt had female rulers • Hatshepsut (1st female pharaoh) and Cleopatra (last pharaoh)

  18. Political

  19. Mesopotamia • City-states (different groups ruled each area) • theocracy • Egypt • Pharaoh(king) – most powerful person, absolute ruler

  20. India • Religion and political power closely linked • China • Shang Dynasty built first cities, absolute rulers

  21. Law Codes • Code of Hammurabi • First law codes • Principle of retaliation – “eye for an eye” • Aim was to ensure justice and protect the weak • Treated nobles and commoners differently

  22. Ten Commandments • Law code of the Hebrews given by Moses • Forbade stealing, murder, adultery, and other forms of immoral behavior • Emphasized living justly

  23. Economic • Mesopotamia: • Farming, trade and industry became important • Metalwork, woolen textiles and pottery • Egypt • Farming and trade • Artisans made a variety of items (dishes, paper)

  24. India • Based primarily on farming • Traded with city-states in Mesopotamia (copper, lumber, cotton) • China • Farming • Craftsmen worked in bronze creating superior weapons and ceremonial vessels • First to make silk textiles

  25. ASSIGNMENT • Choose one of the four civilizations and create an advertisement for something they made. • Should be neat and have at least 3 colors

  26. Cultural • Mesopotamia • Polytheistic • Sumerians built ziggurats – massive stepped tower with a temple on top • Sumerians used cuneiform – wedged shaped writing • Phoenicians – created their own alphabet that was passed on to the Greeks, then Romans, and is the alphabet we use today

  27. Egypt • Pyramids built as burial for pharaoh • Hieroglyphics: sacred writing • Rosetta Stone – helped decipher hieroglyphics

  28. India • Mud brick buildings, some 3 stories high • Public wells • Trash chutes from house to street-level garbage bins • China • Huge walled cities, royal palaces, large royal tombs • Ancestor worship • Masters of bronze casting

  29. Religion

  30. General • Polytheistic • Mesopotamian rulers were often priests. • Theocracy

  31. Israelites/Hebrews • Influenced by Mesopotamia, Egypt and Persia • Monotheistic – belief in one god • Religion known as Judaism • Followed Ten Commandments • After returning to Israel after captivity in Egypt, had to fight to get land back • Established capital at Jerusalem

  32. Judaism • Religion of ancient Hebrews • First monotheistic • Founder – Abraham • Torah – 1st 5 books of the Old Testament • Worship in synagogue

  33. Technological advancements • Mesopotamia • Invented: wagon wheel, potter’s wheel, sundial, bronze, number system based on 60 • Egypt • Hieroglyphics • Mathematics • Accurate 365 day calendar • Medical expertise in human anatomy

  34. India • Buildings of mud brick • Advanced drainage system • China • Large scale water projects • Iron plows • Silk • Pictographs: picture symbols

  35. Create a collage of the technological advancements of the early civilizations • Should have 8 pictures total (hand drawn) and should take up most to all of the page. • Each picture should be numbered and explained on the back.

  36. Homework • Pretend you are a traveller during the early civilizations period, write 4 journal entries about the culture of the 4 places you visited on your journey. • Write it in a diary format. Use descriptions of what you saw when you visited these places.