Download
genes n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Genes PowerPoint Presentation

Genes

167 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Genes

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Genes Behavior Genetics

  2. Environment Genes Alter nervous system & physiology Alter gene expression Alter behavior

  3. Basic Genetics • Read pp. 28-30, and refresh your memory

  4. Goals of Behavior Genetics • identify gene (genes) that control behavior • identify gene interactions with products and environment • Measure heritability – statistical measure that indicates how strongly a behavior is influenced by genes. Varies from 0 – 1, where 0 is no heritability • Requires lots of individuals, often families

  5. Goals of Behavior Genetics • Genomics – study of an organism’s entire genome. • Functional – know all coding and noncoding genes • Comparative – compare genomes in different species to get at evolution • Proteomics – know all proteins coded for by an organism’s genes, how they work together, and influence traits

  6. Methods • Rule out environmental effects • INBRED lines – homozygous at all loci. Can compare 2 lines to get at environmental vs gene effects

  7. Methods Rule out environmental effects EX: House Mice • Artificial Selection • If you can select, it must be genetic

  8. Methods Rule out environmental effects EX: Fruit Flies • Induce Mutation • dunce in fruit flies • a memory problem

  9. Methods Rule out environmental effects EX: Fruit Flies • Natural variation / hybridization • One gene – multiple traits; gene networks

  10. Behavioral Variation and Genes • Genes – variation in alleles • Gene regulation • Relating this to humans and autism

  11. Environmental Regulation • However, environment still has an effect; there is a gene – environment interaction • Read the examples on cichlids and songbirds

  12. Environmental Regulation • Sneakers vs. immature males • Same age • Larger gonads, smaller body size, male body scent • Different genes expressed in brains

  13. Environmental Regulation Gene Networks Different networks in different environments

  14. Epigenetics • Stable alteration in gene expression without changes in DNA sequences • affect how tight the DNA molecule is • two methods • DNA methylation • histoneacetylation