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Where Do All the Proteins Go?

Where Do All the Proteins Go?

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Where Do All the Proteins Go?

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  1. Where Do All the Proteins Go? Eukaryotic Cell Structures pages 173-183

  2. Where Do All the Proteins Go? • Proteins are assembled at ribosomes, but then what? • Most proteins must be modified before they work properly • Animation – protein folding • Several cell organelles help modify & transport the proteins to their final destinations • Animation – overview

  3. The Nucleus • Chromosomes – genetic info inside nucleus • Made of DNA & proteins • Nucleolus – dark spot in the nucleus • Where ribosomes are assembled • Nuclear envelope – membrane around nucleus • Nuclear pores – holes in nuclear envelope that allow RNA to exit the nucleus

  4. Nucleolus Cell Membrane Nucleus Nuclear envelope Animal Cell

  5. Protein Synthesis • Ribosome – where proteins are assembled • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) – series of membranes attached to the nucleus • Rough ER (RER) – Has ribosomes attached to it • Proteins are released inside after being made • Folds & modifies the proteins • Smooth ER (SER) – No ribosomes attached • Lipid synthesis • Animation – overview

  6. Ribosome (attached) Ribosome (free) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Animal Cell

  7. Protein Synthesis – continued • Vesicle – “bubble” surrounded by a membrane • Transports proteins & other substances around the cell • Golgi Apparatus – stacks of membranes near the ER • Modifies the protein before it is sent to its final destination • Animation – vesicle transport

  8. Ribosome (attached) Ribosome (free) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Animal Cell

  9. Final Destinations of proteins? • Cytoplasm • Lysosomes– lipid membrane with enzymes (proteins) inside • Breaks down materials in the cell (recycler) • Outside the cell – vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release proteins (exocytosis) • Cell membrane -protein channels & glycoproteins • Cytoskeleton- microfilaments & microtubules (protein structures) • Helps maintain cell’s shape and involved in cell movement. Animation – final destinations

  10. Cytoskeleton

  11. Plant Cell

  12. Review • Which organelle packages proteins for their final destination? • Which organelle is where ribosomes are made? • Which organelle is full of enzymes? • Which organelle is where proteins are assembled? • Which TWO organelles modify proteins? • Which organelle is where lipids are made? • Which organelle transports proteins around the cell?