Greenhouse Warming By Mark Dalman Katherine Kostopoulos
Greenhouse Warming • What influences it?
The contributing Greenhouse Gases • Water Vapor (60%) • Carbon Dioxide (20%) • Methane,CFC’s,Ozone, and Nitrous Oxide(20%)
The Greenhouse Effect • Is the idea of an encasing layer of gases that serves as a semi-permeable covering that allows for some heat transfer but not complete dissipation of the heat. • This protects the Earth from the extreme temperature conditions. (the Earths homeostasis mechanism)
GOAL • Plan to analyze [CO2] and [water vapor] data to determine if there is a correlative effect on the climatic model • Increasing the concentration of Carbon Dioxide and Water vapor leads to more influential greenhouse warming.
If [water vapor] in the atmosphere remained constant and a doubling in CO2 occurred, it would heat the planet by only ~1.2 deg. C. • However, if CO2 is doubled in these models, the atmosphere holds more water vapor, enhancing the warming to 3.5 deg. C +/- 1.5 degrees. www.arm.gov/docs/education/globwarm/ch_scientist/sld020.htm NEGATIVE POSITIVE
Methodology I obtained several primary and secondary articles that dealt with the effects of CO2 and water vapor. Evaluated American Samoa, Tutuilla I got my data from: http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/ozwv/wvap/ Water vapor data http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccgg/index.html CO2 data
Preparing to get our ice core samples Our boat The crew
Water Vapor … however is a whole different issue It is more difficult to obtain a substantial amount of data
www.iwr.msu.edu/edmodule/ water/cycle.htm • Water vapor is transported by winds and air currents through the atmosphere. When the air mass cools sufficiently, the water vapor condenses into clouds, and a portion falls to the ground as precipitation in the form of snow, rain, sleet, or hail. • Water that falls to the ground as precipitation follows many paths on its way back to the atmosphere. The water may be intercepted and taken up by plants; it may be stored in small depressions or lakes; it can infiltrate the soil; or it can flow over the surface to a nearby stream channel. • The sun may cause the water to evaporate directly back into the atmosphere, or the force of gravity may pull it down through the pores of the soil to be stored for years as slowly moving groundwater. Some of the water flowing through the ground returns to the surface to supply water to springs, lakes, and rivers.
Water Vapor Data • I obtained my data by utilizing the NOAA balloon borne frost point hygrometer
The Current State Of Our Ability To Measure Atmospheric Water Vapor A multitude of systems exist for observing water vapor. Each has different characteristics and advantages www.agu.org/sci_soc/ mockler.html
www.cmdl.noaa.gov/ozwv/wvap • A cross section of the atmosphere in American Samoa • With increasing height, there is less water vapor in the atmosphere
Conclusion • [CO2] is increasing on the Island of Samoa • It went from in the low 300’s ppm to the upper 300 -550 ppm in a time period of 30 years • Water Vapor concentrations are sporadic • This is not accurate due to the lack of data available • However, there is evidence that global warming is occurring, and this is evident due to the increase in the greenhouse effect with respect to increasing water vapor and CO2 concentrations, overall
Our Difficulties • You cannot compare water vapor concentrations to CO2 concentrations in different regions • It’s like comparing apples to oranges • Finding a mixed atmosphere that would give us proper sampling • Not enough Data • Neither water vapor levels or CO2 levels have ever been measured from the same location in a large extent