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Dental

Dental. DHO Book p.470-549 & Nursing Assistants p.315. Terminology – Quiz Friday March 15 th. Odontology - Study of the anatomy, growth, and diseases of the teeth Crown – section of the tooth that is visible in the mouth Root – section of tooth located below the gingiva or gums

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Dental

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  1. Dental DHO Book p.470-549 & Nursing Assistants p.315

  2. Terminology – Quiz Friday March 15th • Odontology - Study of the anatomy, growth, and diseases of the teeth • Crown – section of the tooth that is visible in the mouth • Root – section of tooth located below the gingiva or gums • Enamel – hardest tissue in the body and covers the outside of the crown. Made mostly of calcium and phosphorus. It is the protective layer of the tooth. Enamel does not grow or repair itself after it is formed. • Dentin – tissue that makes up the main bulk of the tooth. It is bonelike, but softer than the enamel. Dentin is living tissue and can repair and grow. • Pulp = soft tissue located in the innermost area of the tooth. Mostly made up of blood vessels and nerves and held in place by connective tissue. • Periodontium = structures that surround and support the teeth • 8. Gingiva – gums – made of epithelial tissue covered by mucous membrane.

  3. Terms Cont. • Primary / deciduous teeth – The first set of teeth (20). Often called “baby teeth” • Incisors – teeth located in front of mouth, sharp, used to cut or bite food • Cuspids – aka canines, or eyeteeth – used to tear food, longest teeth in the mouth • Bicuspids – premolars, pulverize or grind food • Molars – teeth located in the back of the mouth – largest and strongest – chew and grind food • Universal Numbering System – abbreviated form for identifying the teeth • Anterior – “towards the front” • Posterior – towards the back • Labial – crown surface next to the libs • Lingual – crown surface next to the tongue • Incisal = cutting edge of the tooth • Mesial – side surface closest to the midline

  4. Terms Cont. • Distal – side surface away from the midline • Restoration – the process of replacing a diseased portion of a tooth or a lost tooth by artificial means • Cavity – when enamel, dentin and or cementum are destroyed – creates a hollow space. • Amalgam – restorative material used primarily on posterior teeth – usually made of a mixture of metals • Composite – restorative material used most frequently in repair of anterior teeth but now being used in posterior as well. Becoming stronger. Applied in layers and uses a curing light

  5. The tooth – page 471 Figure 17-2 You will be responsible for knowing all parts of the tooth as illustrated on this page. Be prepared to label a diagram. Stop: complete activity

  6. Dental • Odontology is the study of the anatomy, growth, and diseases of the teeth. • Teeth: • 1. Accessory organs of the digestive tract • a. Mastication or chewing of food • 2. Two dentitions (sets of teeth) • a. Primary dentitions – 20 teeth • i. At birth a newborn has 44 tooth buds • ii. At 6 months teeth begin to errupt • iii. By 2 years – all primary teeth have erupted

  7. Teeth Continued • * between ages 6-12 all primary teeth are lost and replaced by permanent • dentition • B. Permanent Teeth – 32 teeth • *begin to errupt at age 5 • *continue until 17-20 years old • *most are in place by age 12

  8. 4 main parts of a tooth • Crown – section of the tooth that is visible in the mouth and protected by enamel • 2. Root – below the gingiva or gums, covered by by cementum. It anchors or holds tooth in the bony socket of the jaw • 3. Cervix = also called the neck or cemento-enamel junction. It is the area where the enamel covering the crown meets the cementum covering the root. • Apex – Tip of the root of the tooth. Contains an opening called the apical foramen, this is where the blood supply and nerves enter the tooth.

  9. 4 main tissues that make up a tooth • Enamel – hardest tissue in the body, covers the crown, made of mostly calcium and phosphorus and forms a protetive layer for the tooth. It does not grow or repair itself. • Cementum – hard, bonelike tissue that covers the outside of the root. It also provides a thin layer of protection and holds the tooth in place. It forms continuously thoughout life. • Dentin – The main bulk of the tooth, bonelike and softer than the enamel but harder then the cementum. It lacks nerves, but it still carries sensations of pain and temperature to the pulp of the tooth. The Dentin is living tissue, it may repair and grow. The internal surface of the dentin makes the wall of the pulp chamber. • Pulp – Soft tissue / innermost area of the tooth. Made of blood vessels and nerves, held in place with connective tissue. • Pulp chamber – portion of pulp located in crown • Pulp canal or root canal – portion contained in the root • Pulp cavity - the chamber and canal create a space in the tooth – provides nourishment and produces dentin.

  10. The Periodontium • Structures that surround and support the teeth • Alveolar process or ridge – upper and lower jaw • Periodontal ligament – connective tissue that attaches to the cementum of the tooth and to the alvelous. It supports the tooth in the socket and absorbes shock during chewing. It contains nerves and blood to nourish the tooth, aides in the production of cementum and produces sensation when pressure is applied. • Gingiva – aka Gums – made of epithelial tissue covered with mucous membrane. Covers the alveolar bone and surrounds the teeth.

  11. Stop Day 2 notes • Answer Questions 3 & 4 on page 473 of DHO book (under procedure). For # 4 use the diagram passed out on Monday.

  12. Identifying the teeth • Incisors • located in the front and center of the mouth • broad, sharp edge • used to cut or bite food • central incisors are in the center • lateral incisors are on the sides of the centrals

  13. Cuspids • also known as canines, or eyeteeth • located at angles of lips • used to tear food • longest teeth in the mouth

  14. Bicuspids • also known as premolars • located before the molars, from front to back • used to pulverize or grind food • *no bicuspids in primary dentition

  15. Molars • Teeth in the back of the mouth • Largest and strongest teeth • Used to chew and grind food

  16. Identifying Teeth • Four Quadrants • 1. Maxillary Right • 2. Maxillary Left • 3. Mandibular Right • 4. Mandibular Left

  17. Universal Numbering System • An abbreviated form for identifying the teeth. Used by the American Dental Association and is the main way to identify teeth. • Primary teeth labeled A-T • Starts at Maxillary right, then maxillary left, mandibular left, and finishes mandibular right • Permanent teeth – numbered 1-32 using the same quadrants as above.

  18. Stop Day 3 notes • Complete questions 5-7 on page 473 of DHO book

  19. Careers in the Dental Field • Dentist • Dental Assistant • Dental Hygienist • Orthodontist, Periodontist, Endodontist, Oral Surgeon • Prostetics • Watch the video of the dental assistant and hygienist – write a 1-2 paragraph summary of what you learned. • Link to video: • http://wps.prenhall.com/phschool_colbert_anat_pathophsy_1/99/25575/6547234.cw/index.html

  20. Care of patient’s teeth (in clinical setting) • Mosby’s textbook for Nursing Assistants • Chapter 16 • Review Assisting the person to brush the teeth p. 316 • Review Brushing the Person’s Teeth p.317 • Review Flossing the Person’s teeth p 318 -319 • Review Mouth Care for the Unconscous Person p 320-321 • Review Denture Care p.322-323 • We will be practicing all of these skills in class / you must participate fully in order to receive credit.

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