The Monarchy of Spain Constitutionally referred to as the The Crown and commonly referred to as the Spanish monarchy or (historically) Hispanic Monarchy, is a constitutional institution and a historic office of Spain. The monarchy comprises a reigning King or Queen of Spain, their family, and the Royal Household organization which supports and facilitates the monarch in the exercise of his royal duties and prerogatives. The monarchy is currently represented by King Juan Carlos I, his wife Queen Sofia, and their children and grandchildren. Opinion polls routinely reveal that the monarchy remains popular by a wide majority of citizens in contemporary Spain.
Constitution of 1978 reestablished a constitutional monarchy as the form of government for Spain. The 1978 constitution affirmed the role of the King of Spain as the personification and embodiment of the Spanish State and a symbol of Spain's enduring unity and permanence. Constitutionally, the king serves as the head-of-state and commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces. The constitution codifies the use of royal styles and titulary, royal prerogatives, hereditary succession to the crown, compensation, and a regency-guardianship contingency in cases of the monarch's minority or incapacitation. According to the constitution, the monarch is also instrumental in promoting Ibero-American relations, the "nations of its historical community". In this capacity, the King of Spain serves as the president of the Ibero-American States Organization, representing over 700,000,000 people in twenty-four member nations worldwide. In 2008, Juan Carlos I was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America. • The Spanish
The Spanish monarchy has its roots in the Visigothic Kingdom founded in Spain and Aquitainia in the 5th century, and its Christian successor states which fought the Reconquista following the Muslim conquest of Spain in the 8th century. A dynastic marriage between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon united Spain in the 15th century. The Spanish Empire became one of the first global powers as Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand funded Christopher Columbus's exploratory voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. This led to the discovery of America, which became the focus of Spanish colonization.
Reign of Amadeo I(1870 - 1873) • First attempt Republican Spain that lasted just over a year (1873 - 1874) between the abdication of Amadeo I of Spain and the delivery of General Arsenio Martínez Campos and subsequent proclamation as King Alfonso XII of Spain. • Bourbon Restoration • Reign of Alfonso XII(1875 - 1885) • 1879 - Establishment of PSOE • Reinado de Alfonso XIII(1902 - 1931) • 1898 - Hispanic-American War. Spain lost Cuba,Philippines,Guam and Puerto Rico. • 1920 - Created the PCE.
dictatorship of General Miguel Primo de Rivera(1923 - 1930) • Second Spanish Republic(1931 - 1939) • 1936 - Triumph of the Popular Front in elections Feb. 16. Spanish Civil War(1936 - 1939) • 1936 - Military Uprising (17 July). • 1939 - Victoria General Franco (April 1). The Franco(1937 - 1975) • Dictatorship of General Francisco Franco Bahamonde • 1942 - Constitutive Act of the Parliament. • 1945 - Enactment of the Jurisdiction of the Spanish and the National Referendum Act. • 1947 - Law of Succession to the Head of State. • 1950 - Entry of Spain in the FAO. • 1952 - Entry of Spain in UNESCO. • 1955 - Spain joins the UN. • 1958 - Joined the IMF. Principles of the Movement Act. • 1966 - Organic Law of the State. • 1969 - Proclamation before the Courts of Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon, as the successor head of state, Francisco Franco, the title of king. • 1974 - The PSOE held its Congress in Suresnes. • 1975 - Death of General Franco(November 20).Rise to the throne of Juan Carlos I.
1978 - Adoption of a democratic constitution by referendum. 1977 - General election in which the triumph of the Union of Democratic Center (UCD), a party led by Adolfo Suarez.
1979 - New legislative elections, in which UCD retains the majority in Congress and the absolute in the Senate. • 1982 - Triumph electoral PSOE to win absolute majority in both Congress and the Senate. First socialist government headed by Felipe Gonzalez, • 1986 - Entry into the European Economic Community. • 1992 - Olympic Games of Barcelona.Exhibition of Seville. 1996 - General election: relative majority of the Partido Popular (PP) led by Jose María Aznar.Term pact with CiU. • 2000 - General election: absolute majority of the PP.Jose María Aznar continues to lead the government. • 2004 - General election: following the March 11 attacks, the PSOE government takes over, with Jose Luis Rogríguez Zapatero as president.
The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 27 member states,located primarily in Europe. Committed to regional integration, the EU was established by the Treaty of Maastricht on 1 November 1993 upon the foundations of the European Communities. With over 500 million citizens, the EU combined generates an estimated 30% share (US$ 18.4 trillion in 2008) of the nominal gross world product and about 22% (US$15.2 trillion in 2008) of the PPP gross world product. • The EU has developed a single market through a standardised system of laws which apply in all member states, ensuring the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital.It maintains common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. Sixteen member states have adopted a common currency, the euro, constituting the Eurozone. The EU has developed a limited role in foreign policy, having representation at the World Trade Organization, G8, G-20 major economies and at the United Nations. It enacts legislation in justice and home affairs, including the abolition of passport controls by the Schengen Agreement between 22 EU and 3 non-EU states.
As an international organisation, the EU operates through a hybrid system of supranationalism and intergovernmentalism. In certain areas, decisions are made through negotiation between member states, while in others, independent supranational institutions are responsible without a requirement for unanimity between member states. Important institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the European Central Bank. The European Parliament is elected every five years by member states' citizens, to whom the citizenship of the European Union is guaranteed. • The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community formed among six countries in 1951 and the Treaty of Rome formed in 1957 by the same states. Since then, the EU has grown in size through enlargement, and in power through the addition of policy areas to its remit.
THE END JOSE ANGEL MARTINEZ LORENTE NOEMÍ CANO BLAYA ANA BELÉN MARTÍ NAVARRO