Oxygen • is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is essential for the body to function properly and to survive. WHAT IS MEANING OF O2 THERAPY • Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen at a concentration of pressure greater than that found in the environmental atmosphere • The air that we breathe contain approximately 21% oxygen • the heart relies on oxygen to pump blood.
OXYGEN THERAPY IS USED TO TREAT • Documented hypoxemia • Severe respiratory distress (acute asthma or pneumonia) • Severe trauma • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, including chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and chronic asthma) • Pulmonary hypertension • Acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) • Short-term therapy, such as post-anesthesia recovery • Oxygen may also be used to treat chronic lung disease patients during exercise .
SOURCES OF OXYGEN: • Wall outlets • Cylinder Oxygen is moistened by passing it through a humidification system to prevent the mucous membranes of the respiratory tree from becoming dry. Wall outlets • The oxygen is supplied from a central source through a pipeline. • Only a flow meter and a humidifier are required
USING OXYGEN CYLINDERS: • The oxygen cylinder is delivered with a protective cap to prevent accidental force against the cylinder outlet. • To release oxygen safety and at a desirable rate, a regulator is used. It consists of two parts. A reduction gauge that reduces the pressure to a working level and shows the amount of oxygen in the tank. A flow meter that regulates the control of oxygen in liters per minutes.
PREPARATION • A physician's order is required for oxygen therapy, except in emergency use. • Clinical observations. • Oxygen supplemental is determined by inadequate oxygen saturation indicated in Artial Blood Gas measurements,(ABGs ) . • Pulse Oximetry.
CAUTIONS FOR OXYGEN THERAPY • Oxygen toxicity – can occur with FIO2 > 50% longer than 48 hrs • Suppression of ventilation – will lead to increased CO2 and carbon dioxide narcosis • Danger of fire • Infection
CLASSIFICATION OF OXYGEN DELIVERY SYSTEMS • Low flow systems • contribute partially to inspired gas client breathes • do not provide constant FIO2 Ex: nasal cannula, simple mask , non-re breather mask , Partial rebreather mask • High flow systems • deliver specific and constant percent of oxygen independent of client’s breathing Ex: Venturi mask,, trach collar, T-piece
NASAL CANNULA (PRONGS): • It is a disposable. • plastic devise with two protruding prongs for insertion into the nostrils, connected to an oxygen source. • Used for low-medium concentrations of Oxygen (24-44%).
FACE MASK • The simple Oxygen mask • The partial rebreather mask: • The non rebreather mask: • The venturi mask:
THE SIMPLE OXYGEN MASK • Simple mask is made of clear, flexible , plastic or rubber that can be molded to fit the face. • It is held to the head with elastic bands. • Some have a metal clip that can be bent over the bridge of the nose for a comfortable fit. It delivers 35% to 60% oxygen . • A flow rate of 6 to 10 liters per minute. • It has vents on its sides which allow room air to leak in at many places, thereby diluting the source oxygen. • Often it is used when an increased delivery of oxygen is needed for short periods • (i.e., less than 12 hours).
THE PARTIAL REBREATHER MASK: • The mask is have with a reservoir bag must romaine inflated during both inspiration & expiration • It collection of the first parts of the patients' exhaled air.\ • It is used to deliver oxygen concentrations up to 80%. • The oxygen flow rate must be maintained at a minimum of 6 L/min to ensure that the patient does not rebreathe large amounts of exhaled air. • The remaining exhaled air exits through vents.
THE NON REBREATHER MASK • This mask provides the highest concentration of oxygen (95-100%) at a flow rate6-15 L/min. • It is similar to the partial rebreather mask except two one-way valves prevent conservation of exhaled air. • The bag is an oxygen reservoir • When the patient exhales air. • the one-way valve closes and all of the expired air is deposited into the • atmosphere, not the reservoir bag. • In this way, the patient is not rebreathing any of the expired gas.
VENTURI MASK • It is high flow concentration of oxygen. • Oxygen from 40 - 50% • At liters flow of 4 to 15 L/min. • The mask is so constructed that there is a constant flow of room air blended with a fixed concentration of oxygen • Is designed with wide- bore tubing and various color - coded jet adapters. • Each color code corresponds to a precise • oxygen concentration and a specific liter flow. The narrower the jet adapter, • the greater the air dilution, and the lower the concentration of oxygen. • It is used primarily for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ,
SIDE EFFECT & COMPLICATION OF OXYGEN THERAPY • Oxygen toxicity • Retrolental fibroplasia • Absorption atelectasis OXYGEN TOXICITY It is a condition in which ventilator failure -occurs due to inspiration of a high concentration of oxygen for aprolonged period of time. -oxygen concentration greater than 50% over 24 to 48 hours can cause pathological changes in the lungs
OXYGEN TOXICITY It is a condition in which ventilator failure: -occurs due to inspiration of a high concentration of oxygen for aprolonged period of time. -oxygen concentration greater than 50% over 24 to 48 hours can cause pathological changes in the lungs Signs and symptoms: • Non-productive cough. • Nausea and vomiting. • Substernal chest pain. • Fatigue. • Nasal stuffiness. • Headache. • Sore throat. • Hypoventilation. • Nasal congestion. • Dyspnea. • Inspiration pain.
Retrolental fibroplasia -blindness due to vasoconstriction & ischemia ( premature infants ) Absorption atelectasis 100 % FLO2 breathing associated with decrease ventilation ( obstruction ) Hypoventilation (increase 30 /M ) Effect ( lung collapse )
EVALUATION: • Breathing pattern regular and at normal rate. • pink color in nail beds, lips, conjunctiva of eyes. • No confusion, disorientation, difficulty with cognition. • Arterial oxygen concentration or hemoglobin • Oxygen saturation within normal limits. DOCUMENTATION: • Date and time oxygen started. • Method of delivery. • Oxygen concentration and flow rate. • Patient observation. • Add oronasal care to the nursing care plan
Fluid, Electrolyte & Acid-Base Balance Body Fluids • Your body is 66% water • Not evenly distributed – separated into compartments • Able to move back and forth thru the cell membranes to maintain an equilibrium
Fluid Compartments • Intracellular fluid – fluid inside cells [ICF] • Extracellular fluid – fluid outside cells and all other body fluids --- ¼ is plasma [intravascular fluid], remaining ¾ is interstitial fluid. Small amount is localized as CSF, serous fluid, synovial fluid, humors of eye & endo/perilymph of ears
EDEMA • Condition in which fluid accumulates in the interstitial compartment. Sometimes due to blockage of lymphatic vessels or by a lack of plasma proteins or sodium retention
FLUID BALANCE • Amount in = amount out • Average daily intake is 2500 ml [ fluids, food and metabolic water] • Average daily output is 2500 ml [ urine, feces, perspiration, insensible perspiration] • What can throw off these numbers?
ELECTROLYTE BALANCE Def: - concentration of individual electrolytes in the body fluid compartments is normal and remains relatively constant. • Electrolytes are dissolved in body fluids • Sodium predominant extracellular cation, and chloride is predominant extracellular anion. Bicarbonate also in extracellular spaces • Potassium is the predominant intracellular cation and phosphates are the predominant intracellular anion • Cations are actively reabsorbed, anions passively follow by electrochemical attraction • Aldosterone works at kidney tubules to regulate sodium & potassium levels
ACID - BASE BALANCE Blood - normal pH of 7.2 – 7.45 < 7.2 = acidosis > 7.45 = alkalosis 3 buffer systems to maintain normal blood pH Buffers Removal of CO2 by lungs Removal of H+ ions by kidneys
Buffers • Protein Buffer Systems • Amino Acid buffers • Hemoglobin buffers • Plasma Protein buffers • Phosphate Buffer Systems • Carbonic Acid – Bicarbonate Buffer System
Maintenance of Acid-Base Balance Respiratory System: removal of CO2 by lungs – stabilizes the ECF, has direct effect on Carbonic Acid – Bicarbonate Buffer System Urinary System: removal of H+ ions by kidneys Disturbances to Acid-Base Balance Respiratory Acidosis Respiratory Alkalosis Metabolic Acidosis [ lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis] Metabolic Alkalosis