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Welcome to 236601 - Coding and Algorithms to Memories

Welcome to 236601 - Coding and Algorithms to Memories. Overview. Lecturer : Eitan Yaakobi yaakobi@cs.technion.ac.il , Taub 638 Lectures hours : Thur 12:30-14:30 @ Taub 8 Course website : http://webcourse.cs.technion.ac.il/236601/Spring2014/

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Welcome to 236601 - Coding and Algorithms to Memories

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  1. Welcome to 236601 - Coding and Algorithms to Memories

  2. Overview • Lecturer: EitanYaakobiyaakobi@cs.technion.ac.il, Taub 638 • Lectures hours: Thur 12:30-14:30 @ Taub 8 • Course website: http://webcourse.cs.technion.ac.il/236601/Spring2014/ • Office hours: Thur 14:30-15:30 and/or other times (please contact by email before) • Final grade: • Class participation (10%) • Homeworks (50%) • Take home exam/final Homework + project (40%)

  3. What is this class about? Coding and Algorithms to Memories • Memories – HDDs, flash memories, and other non-volatile memories • Coding and algorithms – how to manage the memory and handle the interface between the physical level and the operating system • Both from the theoretical and practical points of view • Q: What is the difference between theory and practice?

  4. You do not really understand something unless you can explain it to your grandmother

  5. One of the focuses during this class: How to ask the right questions, both as a theorist and as a practical engineer

  6. Memory Storage • Computer data storage (from Wikipedia): Computer components, devices, and recording media that retain digital data used for computing for some interval of time. • What kind of data? • Pictures, word files, movies, other computer files etc. • What kind of memories? • Many kinds…

  7. 1956: IBM RAMAC 5 Megabyte Hard Drive A 2012 Terabyte Drive

  8. Memories • Volatile Memories – need power to maintain the information • Ex: RAM memories, DRAM, SRAM • Non-Volatile Memories – do NOT need power to maintain the information • Ex: HDD, optical disc (CD, DVD), flash memories • Q: Examples of old non-volatile memories?

  9. Some of the main goals in designing a computer storage: Price Capacity (size) Endurance Speed Power Consumption

  10. The Evolution of Memories

  11. The Evolution of Memories One Song 14% of One Song 28% of One Song 140 Songs 960 Songs 5120 Songs 6553 Songs 209,715 Songs

  12. Optical Storage • Storage systems that use light for recording and retrieval of information • Types of optical storage • CD • DVD • Blu-Ray disc • Holographic storage

  13. History • 1961,1969 - David Paul Gregg from Gauss Electrophysics has patented an analog optical disc for recording video • MCA acquires Gregg’s company and his patents • 1969 - a group of researchers at Philips Research in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, had optical videodisc experiments • 1975 – Philips and MCA joined forces in creating the laserdisc • 1978 – the laserdisc was first introduced but was a complete failure and this cooperation came to its end • 1983 – the successful Compact Disc was introduced by Philips and Sony

  14. History • First generation – CD (Compact Disc), 700MB • Second generation – DVD (Digital Versatile Disc), 4.7GB, 1995 • Third generation – BD (Blu-Ray Disc) • Blue ray laser (shorter wavelength) • A single layer can store 25GB, dual layer – 50GB • Supported by Sony, Apple, Dell, Panasonic, LG, Pioneer

  15. Optical Disc Information is stored as pits and lands (corres. to –1,+1)

  16. Optical Storage – How does it work? • A light, emitted by a laser spot, is reflected from the disc • The light is transformed to a voltage signal and then to bits

  17. The Material of the CD • Most of the CD consists of an injection-molded piece of clear polycarbonate plastic, 1.2 mm thick • The plastic is impressed with microscopic pits arranged as a single, continuous, extremely long spiral track of data • A thin, reflective aluminum layer is sputtered onto the disc, covering the pits • A thin acrylic layer is sprayed over the aluminum to protect it • The label is then printed onto the acrylic

  18. The Laser • The laser spot, emitted by the laser diode is reflected from the disc to the photodiode by the partially silvered mirror • When the spot is over the land: • The light is reflected and the received optical signal is high • When the spot is over a pit: • The light is reflected from both the bottom of the pit and the land • The reflected lights interfere destructively and the signal is low

  19. The Disc • A CD has a single spiral track of data, circling from the inside of the disc to the outside • The track is approximately 0.5 microns width, with 1.6 microns separating one track from the next • The pits size is at least 0.83 microns and 125 nanometers high • The length of the track after stretching it is 3.5 miles! • Holds 74 minutes and 33 seconds of sound, enough for a complete mono recording of Beethoven’s ninth symphony

  20. CD Player Components • A drive motor -spins the disc and rotates it between 200 and 500 rpm depending on which track is being read • A laser and a lens system for focusing read the pits • A tracking mechanism moves the laser assembly so that the laser's beam can follow the spiral track

  21. DVD • Similar to CD but has more capacity (4.7G Vs. 0.7G) • DVDs have the same diameter and thickness as CDs • They are made of the same materials and manufacturing methods • The data on a DVD is encoded in the form of small pits and lands • Similar to CD, a DVD is composed of several layers of plastic, totaling about 1.2 millimeters thick • A semi-reflective gold layer is used for the outer layers, allowing the laser to focus through the outer and onto the inner layers

  22. The material of DVD • Comparing to CD, the pits width is 320 nanometer, and at least 400 nanometer length • Only 740 nanometers separate between adjacent tracks • Therefore, the DVD supplies a higher density data storage

  23. Blu-Ray Disc • The wavelength of a blue-violet laser (405nm) is shorter than the one of a red laser (650nm) • It possible to focus the laser spot with greater precision • Data can be packed more tightly and stored in less space • Blu-ray Discs holds • 25 GB (one layer) 56% • 50 GB (dual layer) 44%

  24. 3 Generations of Optical Recording Blu-Ray Disc CD DVD BD l = 650 nm NA = 0.6 4.7 GBytes l = 405 nm NA = 0.85 22.5 GBytes 0.65 GByte 4.7 GByte 25 GByte 1.2 mm substrate 0.6 mm substrate 0.1 mm substrate

  25. Holographic Storage • An optical technology that allows 1 million bits of data to be written and read out in single flashes of light • A stack of holograms can be stored in the same location • An entire page of information is stored at once as an optical interference pattern within a thick, photosensitive optical material

  26. Holographic Storage • Light from a coherent laser source is split into two beams: signal (data-carrying) and reference beams • The Digital data is encoded onto the signal beam via a spatial light modulator (SLM) • By changing the reference beam angle, wavelength, or media position many different holograms are recorded

  27. Data Encoding • The data is arranged into large arrays • The 0's and 1's are translated into pixels of the spatial light modulator that either block or transmit light • The light of the signal beam traverses through the modulator and is therefore encoded with the pattern of the data page • This encoded beam interferes with the reference beam through the volume of a photosensitive recording medium • The light pattern of the image is recorded as a hologram on the photopolymer disc using a chemical reaction

  28. Reading Data • The reference beam is shined directly onto the hologram • When it reflects off the hologram, it holds the light pattern of the image stored there • The reconstruction beam is sent to a CMOS sensor to recreate the original image

  29. The Magnetic Hard Disk Drive Disk Spindle motor Read-Write Head Arm Actuator

  30. But What is This? A 1975 HDD Factory Floor

  31. Facts About This Factory Floor • The total capacity of all of the drives shown on this factory floor was less than 20 GB’s! • The total selling price of all of the drives shown on this floor was about $4,000,000!

  32. 1980’s: IBM 3380 Drive • The IBM 3380 was the first gigabyte drive. • The manufacturing cost was about $5000. The selling price was in the range $80,000- $150,000! • During the 1980’s, IBM sold billions of dollars of these drives each year. • It is the 2nd most profitable product ever manufactured by man.

  33. IBM 3380

  34. 1980’s: IBM 3380 Drive One Disk From Drive

  35. Q: What’s Inside an Old 4GB Nano? A 4 GB 1” “Microdrive”

  36. Disk Drive Basics “1” “0”

  37. Disk Drive Basics - Writing Head on slider Track Suspension MR Read Sensor Magnetic flux leaking from the write-head gap records bits in the magnetic medium Write Head Shield Recording Media B

  38. Disk Drive Basics - Reading Head on slider Track Suspension Resistance of MR read sensor changes in response to fields produced by the recorded bits MR Read Sensor Write Head Shield Recording Media B

  39. Magnetic Write Process Gap is 100 nm but bits are 25 nm. How can this be?? 100 nm disk 100 nm

  40. Scaling • Shrink everything by factor s (including currents and microstructure). • Areal density of data increases by the factor s2. • Requires vastly improved head and disk materials. • Requires improved mechanical tolerances. • Scaling the flying height is a real challenge. • Requiresimproved signal processing schemes because the SNR drops by a factor of s. What is needed?

  41. Fundamental Innovations MR/GMR sensors (1991/1997) AFC media (2001) to 100 Gb/in2 GMR read sensor Perpendicular recording (2006) to 500+ Gb/in2 Perpendicular media

  42. Longitudinal vs. Perpendicular Longitudinal recording: horizontal orientation Perpendicular recording: vertical orientation (introduced commercially in 2005)

  43. Areal Density Increase of Hard Disk Drives * * CAGR = Cumulative Annual Growth Rate

  44. Predicting the Future of Disk Drives • It looks like the present technology will max out in a few years • As the size of the stored bit shrinks, the present magnetic material will not hold it’s magnetization at room temperature. This is called the superparamagneticeffect • A radically new system may be required

  45. The Future of Disk Drives • Two solutions are being pursued to overcome the superparamagneticeffect • One solution is to use a magnetic material with a much higher coercivity. The problem with this solution is that you cannot write on the material at room temperature so you need to heat the media to write • The second approach is called patterned media where bits are stored on physically separated magnetic elements

  46. Future Technology? HAMR-Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording Patterned Media

  47. Patterned Media Ordinary Media Patterned Media Many grains/bit One grain/bit In patterned media, the pattern of islands is defined by lithography. An areal density of 1 Tb/in2 requires 25-nm bit cells. Presently, this is very difficult to achieve.

  48. Flash Memories

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