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MCDST 70-271: Supporting Users and Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows XP Operating System PowerPoint Presentation
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MCDST 70-271: Supporting Users and Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows XP Operating System

MCDST 70-271: Supporting Users and Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows XP Operating System

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MCDST 70-271: Supporting Users and Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows XP Operating System

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  1. MCDST 70-271: Supporting Users and Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows XP Operating System Chapter 13: Troubleshoot TCP/IP

  2. Objectives • Understand basic network configuration under Windows XP • Understand the basics of IP address configuration • Perform TCP/IP configuration Guide to MCDST 70-271

  3. Objectives (continued) • Understand name resolution basics • Use TCP/IP troubleshooting tools • Resolve basic TCP/IP problems Guide to MCDST 70-271

  4. Network Connection Under Windows XP • A single, multifaceted interface that combines networking access for LAN, Internet, and modem • Accessed through Control Panel Guide to MCDST 70-271

  5. Network Connection Under Windows XP (continued) Guide to MCDST 70-271

  6. Creating New Network Links • Network Connections • Used to create and configure network connections • Create a new connection command in the Network Tasks list • Starts a wizard that takes the user through the process of establishing new network links Guide to MCDST 70-271

  7. Modifying Existing Network Links • Existing local area connections • Can be configured by opening the Properties dialog box for a particular object • Components of connection objects • Client: Client for Microsoft Networks • Service: QoS Packet Scheduler • Service: File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks • Protocol: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Guide to MCDST 70-271

  8. Modifying Existing Network Links (continued) Guide to MCDST 70-271

  9. Menu Options in Network Connections • File: Disable • Prevents selected Connection object from being used to establish a communications link • File: Enable • Allows selected Connection object to be used to establish a communications link Guide to MCDST 70-271

  10. Menu Options in Network Connections (continued) • File: Connect • Initiates the selected Connection object to establish a communications link • File: Status • Displays a Status window for the selected Connection object Guide to MCDST 70-271

  11. IP Addressing • IP addresses • Logical addresses that are 32 bits (4 bytes) long • Internet Protocol (IP) • Fast but unreliable • Part of the IP address assigned to a computer • Designates which network the computer is on • Represents the host ID of that computer Guide to MCDST 70-271

  12. IP Addressing (continued) Guide to MCDST 70-271

  13. The Role of Classes • Class A address • First octet is used to identify network and three trailing octets are used to identify the hosts • Class B address • First two octets identify the network and the second two identify the host • Class C address • Use the first three octets for the network portion and the final octet for the host Guide to MCDST 70-271

  14. The Role of Classes (continued) • Subnet mask • Used to determine which part of an address denotes the network and which part the host • Subnet • Can be written as 255.255.0.0 • Can also be written as 172.16.1.1/16 Guide to MCDST 70-271

  15. Uniqueness of an IP Address • Each IP address must be unique on the Internet • If two IP addresses are duplicated, neither machine with that address is able to access the network • To define an IP address, you must configure the TCP/IP protocol Guide to MCDST 70-271

  16. TCP/IP Configuration • Items that you might need to obtain from a network administrator • Unique IP address for computer • Subnet mask for the network to which the computer belongs • Address of the default gateway • Address of one or more DNS servers, to provide IP name resolution services • You might need to provide an address for a WINS server Guide to MCDST 70-271

  17. TCP/IP Configuration (continued) Guide to MCDST 70-271

  18. TCP/IP Configuration (continued) • Assign an IP address to a computer manually or through DHCP • DHCP • Used to automatically configure the TCP/IP settings for a computer • Default gateway for a computer • Specifies host to which computer should send data that is not destined for the computer’s subnet Guide to MCDST 70-271

  19. Name Resolution • An essential service for • Moderate- to large-sized networks • Any system (or network) wishing to communicate with the Internet • Forms of name resolution • Domain name to IP address • Computer name to IP address Guide to MCDST 70-271

  20. The HOSTS File • A static file placed on members of a network to: • Provide a resolution mechanism between host names and IP addresses • Used on small networks where the deployment of a DNS server is unwarranted • Used on remote systems to reduce traffic over slow WAN links • Can be used to hard-code important systems, such as mission-critical servers Guide to MCDST 70-271

  21. DNS • Handles job of translating symbolic name, such as www.microsoft.com into a corresponding numeric IP address (207.46.250.252) • Can provide reverse lookup services • Highly distributed database that organizes IP names into hierarchical domains Guide to MCDST 70-271

  22. LMHOSTS File • Static file placed on members of a network to provide a resolution mechanism between NetBIOS names and IP addresses • Used only on small networks where deployment of a WINS server is unwarranted • Each line of an LMHOSTS file contains an IP address followed by the corresponding NetBIOS name Guide to MCDST 70-271

  23. WINS • Not a true native TCP/IP service • An extension added by Microsoft • Dynamic service used to replace the static mechanism of the LMHOSTS file Guide to MCDST 70-271

  24. Resolving Name Resolution Problems • Only troubleshooting task a DST can perform to resolve problems with name resolution is verifying proper configuration of DNS and WINS server addresses • Check contents of the HOSTS or LMHOSTS files • Ping various systems to test for resolution • Otherwise, name resolution problems must be forwarded to the network administrator Guide to MCDST 70-271

  25. TCP/IP Troubleshooting Tools • Ipconfig command line tool • Used to manage and view information related to DHCP and DNS • When used without any parameters, displays the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway for all network interfaces on local machine Guide to MCDST 70-271

  26. TCP/IP Troubleshooting Tools (continued) Guide to MCDST 70-271

  27. PING Command Line Tool • Uses the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) protocol to inquire if a designated host is reachable on the network • Used to request a response from a remote host • Provides information about round-trip time required to deliver a message to machine and receive a reply Guide to MCDST 70-271

  28. PING Command Line Tool (continued) Guide to MCDST 70-271

  29. PING Command Line Tool (continued) • Used to test network latency on each intermediary hop between a local source client and a destination • Might be helpful as the tool to use after ping, if a failure is detected • May be able to indicate last node, system, or hop that responded to echo requests before the communications failure occurred Guide to MCDST 70-271

  30. Tracert Command Line Tool • Used to determine the path employed by an ICMP echo request message • Displays list of all encountered routers between client and target system along with time to live (TTL) field values Guide to MCDST 70-271

  31. Tracert Command Line Tool (continued) Guide to MCDST 70-271

  32. Nslookup Command Line Tool • Used to translate an FQDN into an IP address using DNS • Used to verify that a system’s full name is properly registered in DNS • Proper syntax to test a system’s registration • nslookup FQDN Guide to MCDST 70-271

  33. Nslookup Command Line Tool (continued) Guide to MCDST 70-271

  34. ARP • Used to associate a logical (IP) address to a physical (MAC) address • Command is used to view and modify the contents of the ARP cache Guide to MCDST 70-271

  35. The Use of the Repair Button • Appears on the Support tab of a connection object’s Status dialog box • Can be used to resolve basic problems with DHCP and name resolution caches • Can be used as a troubleshooting technique Guide to MCDST 70-271

  36. Troubleshooting TCP/IP Problems • Use ipconfig from a Command Prompt to view the current TCP/IP configuration • If IP address begins with 169, system did not receive an assigned IP address configuration from DHCP Guide to MCDST 70-271

  37. Troubleshooting TCP/IP Problems (continued) • If IP address is 0.0.0.0: • Network cable is disconnected • Device driver for the NIC is not loaded • IP address is a duplicate of another system on the same segment • Verify that subnet mask is correct • Verify that the default gateway, DNS, and WINS addresses are correct Guide to MCDST 70-271

  38. Summary • Windows XP Professional provides network access primarily by using TCP/IP • TCP/IP • Routable • Supports enterprise-level networks • Has been designed to interconnect dissimilar types of computers • An industry-standard protocol that provides easy cross-platform communication • Thorough knowledge is important Guide to MCDST 70-271

  39. Summary (continued) • Windows XP • Includes a number of applications that utilize TCP/IP and provide Internet connectivity • Can use a wide variety of name resolution solutions • Includes several tools for viewing, altering, and troubleshooting TCP/IP configuration Guide to MCDST 70-271