Erasmus Christian Humanist: Christianity should be a guiding philosophy for daily life. In Praise of Folly: humorous criticism of society’s corruptions esp. those of the clergy Goals: Reform the church by a return to simplicity and focus on understanding the teachings of Christ. Results: No major changes were made due to focus on moderation and education.
Thomas More’sUtopia • English lord chancellor • Devout – seen as model of Christian family • Utopia – ideal society of communal ownership where all was controlled for the moral welfare
Controversial Church Practices • Pluralism: holding more than one office • Absenteeism: cannot be in two places at one time • Simony – sale of church offices • Nepotism – favoring ones relatives in appointments • Indulgences – actions that reduce the time spent in purgatory
Thomas a Kempis • Downplay religious dogma • Follow teachings of Jesus “at the day of judgement we shall not be examined by what we have read, but what we have done; not how well we have spoken, but how religuously we have lived.”
Indulgences and Sacrament • Indulgences • Good works, relics or writings from pope • Sold to reduce time in purgatory • Sacraments • Baptism • Marriage • Reconciliation / Confession • Eucharist/Communion • Confirmation • Holy Orders • Anointing of the sick/ extreme unction
“As soon as coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”
Martin Luther German Educated in Law then became a monk. Main concern was how to be saved despite being a sinner and what role did the sacraments play in salvation. Spent hours in confession.
Luther Posting the 95 Theses Platform: 1.Salvation by Faith alone (Justification) 2. The Bible is the chief guide to religious truth (not any man). 3. No selling of indulgences 4. Reform the monasteries 5. Free will to marry 6. Kept 2 sacraments (baptism and marriage) 7. no to transubstantiation 8. Mass in the vernacular, not Latin
Protestant Reformation • Wittenberg • Ninety-Five Theses • 1517 • 1519 Debate with Jonathan Eck • Luther admits his ideas similar to John Huss • Luther loses the debate • 1520 _ Pope Leo X excommunicates making Luther an “outlaw” • Charles V • Diet of Worms (1521) • Charles V outlaws Luther • Frederick the Wise • Elector of Saxony
The German Problem • Martin Luther had been at it for 12 years by the time Charles could finally devote his full attention to Germany • THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE – not really an empire, but a collection of a few hundred states / cities / territories • They were technically loyal to the HRE, but no one wanted a strong emperor
The Peasant’s War • Peasants were angry • No benefit from gradual econmic improvement • Abuse of peasant esp in SW Germany • New demands for taxes and serviced • Looked to Luther for support • Social discontent led to religious zeal • Thomas Muntzer (ex-follower of Luther) inflamed the revolution • Lurther’s reaction • Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants • Princes should “smite, slay, and stab” • Needed their support
CHARLES V’s EMPIRE • Europe • Spain • Netherlands • Austria • Naples • Sardinia • Sicily • Meso & South America
Charles V • 1519, Charles V is elected Holy Roman Emperor • Spain, Austrian Habsburg lands, Bohemia, Hungary, the Low Countries [the Netherlands], and Naples [Italy] • Charles wanted to maintain political control of this huge empire AND preserve the Catholic Church within this Empire. • Faced constant problems – the French (Francis I being #1), the Papacy, the Turks, & the “German Problem” • The Ottoman Turks led by Suleiman the Magnificent overran most of Hungary (killing King Louis, Charles’ bro-in-law) and made it as far as Vienna
Diet of Augsburg - 1530 • Meeting to resolve the Luther problem • Charles demands that all Lutherans return to the Catholic Church by 4/15/1531 • Lutheran Princes form the Schmalkaldic League (a military alliance in case they were attacked by any Catholic forces) • Charles is once again preoccupied with wars against the Turks, French, and Arab & Barbary forces.
Peace of Augsburg - 1555 • Division of Christianity is formally acknowledged • Lutherans granted equal standing with Catholics • EACH GERMAN RULER WOULD DETERMINE THE RELIGION FOR HIS TERRITORY (only choice is Catholic or Lutheran)
Why did Luther succeed where Hus and others failed? • Political Reasons • Princes wanting free of the HRE • Charles V otherwise engaged in wars (distracted so Lutheranism could spread) • Habsburg – Valois (France) • With Ottoman Empire • Economic • Money to Rome • Usury • Printing Press (use of pamphlets) • The movement began in Urban areas and spread (common, middle class people) • New Hymns to express his views
The Papacy • The Pope was more concerned about Habsburg power in Italy than Luther in Germany • Pope Clement VII sided with the French in the 2nd Hab.-Val. War (1527-1529) • Charles V’s mercenary army sacked Rome in 1527 • The Pope eventually joined forces with Charles against Luther (too late)
Ulrich Zwingli1484 - 1531 • Switzerland • Nation divided into 13 “Cantons” ruled by oligarchies of wealthy citizens • Zurich • Rejected all sacraments (Last supper was symbolic no transubstantiation occurred)
Reformers DebateThe Marburg Colloquy • 1529 • Luther vs. Zwingli • Agree on nearly everything except… • The “Lord’s Supper” • Luther – Real presence of Jesus • Zwingli – figuratively only • No agreement – no evangelical alliance
JOHN CALVIN(1509-1564) • Geneva • Theocracy • Excommunicated • Institutes of the Christian Religion (excellent summary of Protestant thought) • Predestination • In Geneva: laws against blasphemy and immoral behavior • John Knox (1505-1572) • Scotland
PROTESTANTISM AND CAPITALISM • According to Max Weber, a German sociologist, Calvinism, with its concept of serving God through one's calling or vocation, helped shape the spirit of capitalism. Weber has written: "The ideal type of the capitalist entrepreneur . . . avoids ostentation and unnecessary expenditure, as well as conscious enjoyment of his power, and is embarrassed by the outward signs of the social recognition which he receives.... His manner of life is...distinguished by a certain ascetic tendency.... He gets nothing out of his wealth for himself, except the irrational sense of having done his job well."
ANABAPTISTS • “REBAPTIZERS” • Swiss Brotherhood • Munster – New Jerusalem (theocracy) • John of Leiden – King of New Jerusalem • Catholics and Lutherans slaughter (1535) • Separation of Church & State • Menno Simons- Dutch Anabaptist and pacifist • Brethren, Hutterites, Mennonites, Amish • All believers are equal as priests