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  1. American History Reconstruction to the Present GHSGT Social Studies Review

  2. Reconstruction 1865-1877 • How to rejoin a nation torn apart by the civil war • 2 plans • Presidential Reconstruction • Radical Republican Reconstruction

  3. Presidential reconstruction • 10% plan • Make the South’s return to the Union as quick and painless as possible • After 10% of those on voting lists swore allegiance to the Union, a Confederate state could form a new state government and gain representation in Congress

  4. Radical Reconstruction • Also called the Wade-Davis Bill • Wanted to destroy the political power of former slave owners • African Americans should be given full citizenship and the right to vote • The majority of voters in southern states would have to swear allegiance before being readmitted to the Union (not 10%) • Lincoln pocket vetoed the Bill

  5. Helping the former slaves • Freedmen’s Bureau • Helped former slaves and poor whites • Distributed clothing and food • Set up hospitals, industrial institutes and teacher training centers • Worked with churches to reunite families separated by slavery • Schools were set up to teach former slaves how to read and write

  6. Helping the former slaves • Some people thought plantation land should be distributed to the newly freed slaves • Others argues that the government could not take property away from its owner • The government did pass a Homestead Act which set aside 44 million acres, but it didn’t do much good because the land wasn’t suitable for farming

  7. Cycle of Poverty • Many former slaves did not have money to buy their own land • They became tenant farmers or sharecroppers • They rented land and equipment and paid for its use with a large part of their harvest

  8. 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments • 13th—ended slavery • 14th--Made former slaves citizens • 15th—gave African American men (former slaves) the right to vote

  9. Opposition to African Americans exercising their freedoms • Black Codes—laws passed by southern states that severely restricted the rights of former slaves (discrimination laws). Congress said these laws were illegal • The Ku Klux Klan—goal was to restore white supremacy and prevent African Americans from exercising their new political rights

  10. President Johnson • Radical Republicans did not like the fact that President Johnson was not enforcing the Reconstruction Act • Congress charged Johnson with violating the Tenure of Office Act (impeachment) • Congress claimed Johnson had fired a cabinet member without the Senate’s permission • Johnson was found not guilty

  11. Railroads • After the civil war, many people began to go west to start over • Railroads made westward expansion possible • The government gave railroad companies land grants and loans • Expansion of railroads led to the development of towns and new markets for eastern goods

  12. Railroads expand industry • Steel industries supplied railroad companies with supplies • This led to Andrew Carnegie gaining a monopoly on the steel industry • Carnegie used vertical integration (he controlled all aspects of the steel industry from start to finish) • He also bought out his competitors

  13. Transcontinental Railroad • 2 railroad companies decide to build a railroad that would go across the nation • Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met at Promontory Point Utah in 1869 • The Central Pacific RR used Chinese immigrants to work for lower wages in dangerous conditions to help build the railroad

  14. Monopolies & Big Business • John D. Rockefeller used trusts to form a monopoly in the Oil Industry • Trust—companies turn over their stock to be managed by a group of trustees who run the companies like a large corporation. They then get a share of the profits earned by the trust

  15. Robber Baron Rockefeller • He also sold his oil so cheap, his competitors were forced out of business • Once he had control of the market, he would drastically raise the price • He treated his employees poorly • People criticize his business tactics, calling him a robber baron

  16. Immigrants arrive in the USA • Before the civil war, immigrants came from Germany, Ireland, France, Etc (North and West Europe) • After the civil war, many of the immigrants coming to the USA were from Southern and Eastern Europe • Ellis Island—immigrant processing station in New York City for European immigrants • Angel Island--immigrant processing station in San Francisco for Asian immigrants

  17. Impact of Immigration in cities • When they got to America, immigrants usually lived in the cities where they could find jobs • The large numbers of immigrants flooding into urban areas (cities) led to several problems: • Poor sanitation, not enough housing, disease, over crowding, transportation, water, crime, fire

  18. American Federation of Labor • An organization of skilled workers that join together to collective bargain: Negotiation between workers and management to reach a written agreement • The AFL wanted better hours, wages, and working condition • The AFL used strikes to achieve their goals Samuel Gompers was the President of the AFL

  19. Indian Wars settlement of the West • Native Americans had been forced to live in the western plains • As settlers move to the west and as railroads expand, conflict between the groups increase

  20. Plains Indian Wars • Gold, the Bozeman Trail, and buffalo hunting leads to conflict between settlers and Indians • Massacre at Sand Creek, Battle of the Little Bighorn River (Custer defeated), Battle of Wounded Knee—native defeat ends Indian wars • Indians are forced to live on reservations and to assimilate into “white’ culture

  21. Women lead the way • After the civil war, women once again lead the reform movement • Suffrage, temperance/prohibition, educating Native Americans, workers’ rights, child labor, hardships of the farmers, living conditions in the cities, education

  22. Continued discrimination • Jim Crow laws—laws passed by states and local governments which segregated the races • Plessey v. Ferguson—Supreme court case which made segregation of races legal as long as the facilities were equal • Established the idea of “Separate but Equal”

  23. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 • The American government created this law to stop Chinese immigrants from coming to the USA • Asian immigrants were seen as competition for jobs because they would work for less pay • This led to strong anti-Asian feelings on the west coast.

  24. Progressive reforms • Initiative– ideas for laws that start with the people not law makers • Referendum—people can vote on the initiative laws • Recall—people can call for a new election which may remove an elected official before their term in office is over • Direct election of senators—the people of each state could vote for their senators (17th amendment)

  25. NAACP • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People • Founded in 1909 • Led by W.E.B. Dubois • Goal—promote full racial equality

  26. Muckraker • Muckraker—journalist in the Progressive Era that exposed corruption in government, business, and society • Ida Tarbell—muckraker who exposed corruption in The Standard Oil Company

  27. The Jungle • Muckraker, Upton Sinclair’s book • Originally meant to expose the horrible working conditions in the Chicago meat packing houses • Instead exposed the horrible processing practices of meat • As a result of the book, 2 laws were passed • The Pure Food and Drug Act—required the ingredients to be listed • The Meat Inspection Act—federal inspectors regulated the sanitation and processing of meat

  28. Helping the poor workers of America • During the Progressive Era, laws were passed to improve working conditions, reduce working hours, reduce the use of child laborers • Muckrakers exposed the horrible living conditions of poor workers in the cities

  29. Spanish-American War • America went to war to free Cuba and the Philippines from Spanish control • When the US freed the Philippines, the US made it into an American colony which angered the people who though they should be independent. • America also took control of Hawaii and Puerto Rico • Some people objected to America forming colonies

  30. Roosevelt Corollary • The Monroe Doctrine had stated that European nations should not try to set up colonies in Latin America (keep out or else) • After the Spanish-American War, President Theodore Roosevelt added another part to that policy • The Roosevelt Corollary stated that the US would use military force to protect its interests in Latin America

  31. Panama Canal • The US wanted a faster way to get to the Pacific Ocean to protect our new colonies • Columbia controlled Panama and would not negotiate • The US “helped” the people of Panama start a rebellion so they could become independent • The US signed a treaty with Panama to build a canal (completed in 1914)

  32. U.S. involvement in World War I • At first, America was officially neutral in World War I (1914) • As Germany practiced unrestricted submarine warfare (sinking the Lusitania and American merchant ships) and tried to start a war between Mexico and the US (Zimmerman Note) America eventually joined the Allied Forces (1917)

  33. Impact of the War at Home • American factories switched from producing household goods to war time goods • African Americans moved from the south to the north to work in the factories—The Great Migration • Women also worked in factories which helped gain support for female suffrage

  34. Wilson’s Fourteen Points • During the war, President Wilson came up with a plan for peace –Wilson’s 14 points • His most important idea was the formation of a League of Nations which would call for an international organization to try and work out conflicts and avoid another war • Congress was afraid that the US would get tangled up in international conflicts so the US NEVER joined the League or signed the Versailles Treaty

  35. 1920’s amendments • Eighteenth Amendment--established Prohibition (production, sale, or consumption of alcohol was illegal) 1920 • Nineteenth Amendment--established woman suffrage

  36. The US after WW I • After the war, America withdrew itself from international issues (isolationism) • Americans also became paranoid that communism and socialism could spread and increase in the USA • This led to the Red Scare during which people were investigated if they were thought to be socialist or communist (Palmer Raids)

  37. Congress also passed laws to restrict immigration, especially from nations in southern or eastern Europe

  38. Assembly Line • Henry Ford used assembly lines to mass produce his cars (Model T) • By the 1920’s the automobile had transformed American society • Towns develop as people moved further away from the cities • Route 66 was built, gas stations, rubber and oil industries expand • Women and teenagers gain more independence

  39. Radio and Movies • Radio provided a way for Americans to experience a common culture by listening to news, baseball games, soap operas, etc • Movies were a cheap form of entertainment during the 1920’s and Depression • People could escape the hardships of life, even for just a little while

  40. African American 1920’s Culture • Jazz, with its roots in ragtime and blues, became a popular form of music • Louis Armstrong (playing his trumpet) became a famous and influential jazz musician • The Harlem Renaissance was an artistic, literary, and cultural African American movement • Langston Hughes was a famous African American poet

  41. Causes of the Great Depression • 1. Overproduction—farmers and factories were producing more crops and goods • 2. Under consumption—wages do not keep up with rising prices—people start buying things on credit • 3. unequal distribution of wealth

  42. Stock market crash of 1929 • People gambled on the stock market • Either by buying on the margin( taking out loans to pay for stocks) or • Speculation—buying stocks and bonds on the chance for a quick profit • Unrestrained buying and selling led to the crash on October 29, 1929 (Black Tuesday)

  43. Unemployment • The Stock market crash did not cause the depression, but it did signal the start of widespread unemployment and economic collapse from 1929-19940 • Banks and businesses fail • 1 out of every 4 people became unemployed • Homeless families who lost everything form makeshift shantytowns called Hoovervilles.