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The 5 Big Ideas

The 5 Big Ideas. Evolution. Viral Evolution. Evolution. Ecosystems. Metabolism. Transfer of Energy. Systems. Endocrinology. Structure and Function. Photosynthesis. Transfer of Information. Molecular Structure. Animal Behavior. Organ Structure. Cell Cycle. The 5 Big Ideas.

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The 5 Big Ideas

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  1. The 5 Big Ideas Evolution Viral Evolution Evolution Ecosystems Metabolism Transfer of Energy Systems Endocrinology Structure and Function Photosynthesis Transfer of Information Molecular Structure Animal Behavior Organ Structure Cell Cycle

  2. The 5 Big Ideas Evolution Viral Evolution Evolution Ecosystems Metabolism Transfer of Energy Systems Endocrinology Structure and Function Photosynthesis Transfer of Information Molecular Structure Animal Behavior Organ Structure Cell Cycle

  3. Food is Fuel! Energy Transfer & Metabolism Katie Mouzakis & Dr. Gary Diffee

  4. Learning Outcomes You will be able to explain why a cell would need ATP You will be able to explain how energy is stored for future use (short term and long term situations) You will be able to put the different steps of metabolism into chronological order You will understand how energy is used during endurance exercise You will evaluate and predict how different energy supplements would affect a marathon runner if consumed during the race. You will create a written suggestion explaining whether or not a given race plan is likely to help the runner avoid hitting “the wall”.

  5. What is energy? Energy exists in different forms but is neither created nor destroyed; it simply converts to another form. Eg: kinetic, potential, thermal, gravitational, elastic, electromagnetic, chemical, nuclear, and mass. http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Energy

  6. Why do we need energy? Cells require energy to carry out normal functions. I’m asking you! Cells are like mini-factories. Factories require energy to function. For the cell, that energy is in the form of ATP

  7. How do we get energy? We eat … Gas CO2 + H2O +mechanical energy +thermal energy (heat) Chemical potential energy Food Sugar CO2 + H2O +chemical energy(ATP) Fatty acids Amino acids Chemical potential energy Usable energy currency

  8. Energy “currency” and storage Currency Storage facility Stored form of currency In the body... Muscle & Liver cellsAdipose (fat) Glycogen triglycerides (fats) ATP

  9. Energy “currency” and storage Currency Storage facility Stored form of currency In the body... Muscle & Liver cells Glycogen triglycerides (fats) ATP

  10. ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate) Chemical energy is stored in the phosphate bond When that bond is broken, energy is released

  11. How do we use ATP? Hydrolysis of ATP is coupled with unfavorable reactions reaction 1 (consumes energy) + ATP hydrolysis (releases energy) Net energy release (reaction 1 can proceed)

  12. How do we make ATP? Glycolysis (oxidation of glucose) - complete breakdown of glucose (requires O2) C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + 2840 kJ Energy/mol = 38 ATP from one Glucose molecule - breakdown to pyruvate (then to lactic acid) C6H12O6 2C3H4O3 + 146 kJ Energy/mol (only 5% of Energy of glucose released) = 2 ATP from one Glucose molecule Carbs Fats Fatty Acid oxidation complete breakdown of one 16 Carbon Fatty Acid = 129 ATP

  13. Energy “currency” and storage Currency Storage facility Stored form of currency In the body... Glycogen triglycerides (fats) Muscle & Liver cells ATP

  14. How do we store energy? Glycogen Glucose is linked as a polymer for storage (liver and skeletal muscles) • Fatty Acids • Excess glucose is • converted to fatty acids for long term storage in fat cells

  15. Activity: Strip Sequence!

  16. Activity: Strip Sequence!

  17. Activity: Strip Sequence!

  18. Activity: Strip Sequence!

  19. Activity: Strip Sequence!

  20. Activity: Strip Sequence!

  21. Activity: Strip Sequence!

  22. Activity: Strip Sequence!

  23. Guest Speaker- Dr. Gary Diffee

  24. Exercise Metabolism Where do we get the ATP? From the breakdown of Carbohydrates and Fats DURING exercise

  25. Glycogen Glucose Stored Triglycerides Free Fatty Acids Pyruvate Lacate(done getting energy out) Acetyl CoA (can proceed to complete breakdown) ATP Krebs Cycle No Oxygen Oxygen Electron Transport Chain Mitochondria Partial Oxidation of Glucose Complete Oxidation of Glucose ATP Scoreboard 2 ATP 38 ATP Complete Oxidation of 1 Fatty Acid Molecule 129 ATP

  26. Glycogen versus Blood Glucose as Energy source Long duration Exercise - Limited Muscle Glycogen stores - When it runs out (or gets low), Blood Glucose is our only Carbohydrate Source - What do we do then for Fuel?

  27. Effects of Training 100% - Fat Carbohydrate Percent Fuel utilization Maximal Exercise Exercise Intensity Rest

  28. Effects of Training 100% - Fat Carbohydrate Percent Fuel utilization Maximal Exercise Exercise Intensity Rest

  29. Effects of Training 100% - Fat Carbohydrate a = No Effect = % Fuel utilization Exercise Intensity Rest Maximal Exercise 100% - = Increased Fat usage = b Fat Carbohydrate % Fuel utilization Exercise Intensity Rest Maximal Exercise 100% - = Increased Carb usage = Fat Carbohydrate c % Fuel utilization d Exercise Intensity Rest Maximal Exercise Variable between individuals =

  30. Training adaptations that impact Fuel Utilization • Improved Cardiovascular and Respiratory Function • = improved ability to get Oxygen to muscles • Increased number and size of muscle mitochondria • = improved ability to do aerobic ATP production Net result = improved ability to utilize FAT for ATP supply = Glycogen sparing = Increased Glycogen stores

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