World Geography Ms. Ethel Marie Y. Entrampas
DEFINITIONS • The study of the earth and its features History is to TIME; Geography is to SPACE Two types: Physical Geography Human Geography Climate Land/Water Forms Vegetation Population Interactions Culture
Commonly used tools used in Geography • Map (Climate, Political, Economic) • Globe
Types of Location Relative Absolute Locating a place using latitude and longitude lines • Locating a place using its neighboring place (vicinal) or body of water (insular)
Origin of the Earth Grade 9 – World History
Essential Questions The Genesis Question: How did all life forms come to be in this earth? 1 Which theories best explain the origins of man and the earth? 2 How does geography shape human evolution and civilization? 3 Can the earth keep up with 7 billion people? 4 5 How about 8, 10 billion in the next 50 years?
Enduring Understanding • The study of man’s history would be incomplete without first understanding his own origins and the larger environment around him, that is the Earth. • Geography serves as the foundation in shaping human culture and civilization. • Geography plays a vital role in forming the different countries of the world. • Man’s cultural development is a by-product of man’s willingness to survive in achanging environment.
Geo-Vocabulary Words • Theory - A set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena. • Universe - All matter and energy, including the earth, the galaxies, and the contents of intergalactic space, regarded as a whole. • Galaxy - any of a vast number of star systems held together by gravitational
Solar system - The sun together with the eight planets and all other celestial bodies that orbit the sun. • Nebula - a diffuse cloud of particles and gases that is visible either as a hazy patch of light or an irregular dark region against a brighter background • Planets - celestial body larger than an asteroid or comet, illuminated by light from a star
Big Bang Theory Tidal Theory Nebular Theory Planetesimal Theory Condensation Theory • Laplace • Edwin • Hubble • Immanuel • Kant Add Your Text here • Thomas • Chamberlain • Robert Jostrow
Big Bang Theory The universe goes through a tremendously high-speed rise that expands within a fraction of a second The universe came to be because of a colossal explosion • The universe was compacted into a cosmic • ball that subsequently exploded with a big bang • into everything that exists today. • (i.e. space, time, matter and energy)
Creation • a supreme being (God) created the earth and the universe. • Creationists embrace the Bible not only for its religious content but also for its recording of history
“In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth”. • This belief is often summarized as the universe was built “by design” and not simply by chance as the big bang theory assumes.
Nebular Theory Text A nebula is a large cloud of gases believed to be the remnants of a star which has exploded. This mass rotates continuously while it shrinks and flattens due to the force of gravity The different parts of the solar system were formed from this huge mass of cloud.
Planetesimal Theory 1 2 A star passed close to the sun. Huge tides were raised on the surface and these erupted matters were torn free (planetesimals) Solar system was formed when a star collided with the sun
Gaseous Tidal Theory Phase 1 Phase 2 Solar system was formed when a star collided with the sun A huge tidal wave raised on the sun by a force of gravity of a passing star
The solar nebula contracts and flattens into a spinning disk. • The large blob in the center will become the Sun. Smaller blobs in the outer regions may become jovian planets. C. Dust grains act as condensation nuclei, forming clumps of matter that collide, stick together, and grow into moon-sized planetesimals.
CONTINENTAL DRIFT • All continents were once part of a supercontinent known as Pangaea (Pangea) which means all lands. • Divided into two: Laurasia (North) and Gondwanaland (South)
PLATE TECTONICS • Tectonics: to build • The crust floats over a semi-molten layer. • The crust is broken up into large small pieces called plates
These plates are always in motion • There are 14 major continental and oceanic plates • When one plate collides with another, it may divide or “subduct” underneath the other.