POETRY TYPES AND THEMES
WHAT IS POETRY? • Take out a piece of paper and write 15 things poetry is, does, describes, etc… • Ex. Poetry is an art form in which humans use words to describes feelings. • Turn in when done
1st Major Assignment • Find a Poem and MEMORIZE IT!! • Must be at least 10 lines long • Must be appropriate for class • Analyze your poem of choice by using the 10 items of Poetry Analysis • You will recite your poem in front of the class • For this you are not to just stand up in front of everyone and say it without emotion. There must be emotion and physical gestures that help explain the poem Due Tuesday!!!
What is Poetry?? • Poetry is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities and semantic content. It consists largely of oral or literary works in which language is used in a manner that is felt by its user and audience to differ from ordinary prose. It may convey emotion or ideas to the reader’s or listener’s mind or ear. It may also use devices such as assonance and repetition to achieve musical or incantatory effects. They use imagery, word association, and musical qualities to bring out the language used. The interactive layering of all these effects generate a depth of meaning that is the mark of poetry.
Poetry Terms: Rhyme • Use of matching sound patterns in two or more words: “tight” and “might” or “sleep” and “deep” • For rhyme to be perfect, the final vowel and noun patterns must be the same • Imperfect rhyme occurs when the final consonant sounds are the same but the verb pattern is different: “learn” and “barn” or “road” and “dead” • The most common type of rhyme is end rhyme, where the final words of each line rhyme
Rhythm • The regular occurrence of sounds • Achieved through balanced structure and regular rhyme and meter • The way words are set up on a page can help achieve certain rhythm
Stanza • Group of two or more lines with the same metrical pattern – and often with a regular rhyme scheme as well – separated by blank space • Functions like a paragraph – groups related ideas • Types of Stanzas: • Couplet – two line stanza with rhyming lines of similar length and meter • Quatrain – four line stanza with rhyming lines of similar length and meter • Refrain • Repeated word or series of words
Meter • The recurrence of regular units of stressed and unstressed syllables • A stress (or accent) occurs when one syllable is emphasized more than another
Figurative Language • Poems can be interpreted at two levels: - Literal level -the basic, original meaning of a poem - Figurative level – the deeper, imaginative meaning of a poem Poems contain figurative language (e.g. simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, etc.)
Assonance • The repetition of identical vowel sounds in different words in close proximity. Example: deep green sea • Occurs especially in stressed syllables • Used to unify a poem • Can be distracting if used ineffectively • Alliteration • Repetition of consonant sounds in consecutive or neighboring words • Usually found at the beginning of words • Used to enhance sound in a poem • Ex. Behemoth, biggest born of earth, upheaved His vastness • Onomatopoeia • The sound of a word echoes its meaning • Bang, crash, hiss • One of the earliest and most primitive ways of enhancing sound in a poem
Consonance • Words having similar sounds, yet not quite rhyming • Ex. shadow meadow; pressed, passed; sipped, supped • Simile • Is a figure of speech comparing two things using words “like” or “as”
Personification • Attributing human characteristics to nonhuman things or abstractions. • Imagery • Involves our senses, e.g: visual, smell and sound. • Draws the reader into an experience by stimulating their senses which contributes to the mood of the poem. • Symbolism • The use of symbols to signify ideas and qualities by giving them symbolic meanings that are different from their literal sense.
Types of Poems • Back page of your Notes • Find the definitions for each type of poetry • 15 words or less!
Types of Poems • Limerick • Often silly or whimsical, written in 5 lines with an AABBA rhyme scheme • Haiku • A Japanese form of poetry that is composed of 3 non rhyming lines (1st & 3rd line – 5 syllables; 2nd line – 7 syllables) • Free Verse • A loose type of poem, can have any number of lines, can rhyme or not, no meter required • Blank Verse • Written in unrhymed iambic pentameter; 5 “feet” of unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable • da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM
Lyric • Express personal (often emotional) feelings and are traditionally spoken in the present tense; meter determined by writer • Sonnet • A lyric poem that consists of 14 lines; have at least 1 or 2 rhyme schemes • Pastoral • Depicts rural life in a peaceful, idealized way; very peaceful and in harmony; typically has a rhyme scheme • Imagery • Draws the reader into poetic experiences by touching on the images and senses which the reader already knows; follows a rhyme scheme
Elegy • Express a lament, often over the death of a loved one; express a wide range of emotions; follows rhyme scheme • Concrete (Shape) • The typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem • Dramatic Monologue • Shares many features with a speech from a play: one person speaks, and in that speech there are clues to his/her character, the character of the implied person or people that s/he is speaking to, the situation in which it is spoken and the story that has led to this situation
Narrative • Tells a story, often making use of the voices of a narrator and characters as well; the entire story is usually written in metered verse • Ballad • Tells a story similar to a folk tale or legend and often has a repeated refrain. A ballad is often about love and often sung. A ballad is a story in poetic form • Epic • One of the longest types of poetry; narrative poem that tells a story, usually of a mythical warrior (Ex. The Odyssey)
Poetry Analysis • Identify Speaker • Type of Poem • Rhythm and Meter • Rhyme • Stanzas • Repetition • Imagery • Figurative Language (2 examples) • Symbols and Meaning (at least 2 symbols) • Theme of Poem
The Road Not TakenBy Robert Frost Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that, the passing there Had worn them really about the same, And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I, I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference.