POETRYPOETRYPOETRYPOETRY Awaluddin Safar bin Jaafar FikriNazwan bin Mahmud Foo Chuan Yee AizatRushdi bin CheJaafar Muhammad AzhanZaffuan bin Ramli
DEFINITION… • Poetry is the concentrated expression of ideas and feelings through precise and imaginative words selected for their sonorous and rhythmical effects. • Poetry, in the form of nursery rhymes, is a natural beginning to literature for young children and enjoyable literary form for all ages. • Poetry is a form of language that can evoke great depth of feeling and provoke new insights through imaginative and beautiful language.
TYPES OF POETRY BOOKS • Mother Goose and Nursery Rhyme Books • Nursery and Folk Songbooks • Anthologies of Poetry • Specialized Poetry Books • Single Illustrated Poems
Mother Goose and Nursery Rhyme Books • Heavily illustrated collections of traditional verse. • Eg: Tomie dePaola’s Mother Goose • A familiar illustration is all child needs to get her or him to recite one of these well-loved verses. • First appeared: Charles Perrault’s Tales of Mother Goose in France in the early eighteenth century. • In societies in which countless allusions are made every day to the characters and situations found in nursery rhymes, knowledge of this literature is a mark of being culturally literate.
Nursery and Folk Songbooks • Heavily illustrated collections of both traditional and modern verses and musical notation. • Eg: Songs from Mother Goose, compiled by Nancy Larrick and illustrated by Robin Spowart. • Melody further emphasizes the innate musicality of these verses and turns some verses into games (“Ring around the Roses”) and others into lullabies (“Rock-a-Bye-Baby”)
Anthologies of Poetry • Comprehensive anthology of poetry for children is a must in every classroom. It should be organized by subject for easy retrieval of poems appropriate for almost any occasions. • Contemporary and traditional poets can be found in these anthologies. • Appeal to a wide age range, providing nursery rhymes for toddlers, narrative poems for middle age student. • A New Treasury of Children’s Poetry: Old Favourites and New Discoveries, selected by Joanna Cole.
Specialized Poetry Books • Readily available in which the poems are all by one poet, on one topic, for one age group, or of one poetic form. • This specialized collections is necessary for a teacher and class who come to love certain kinds of poetry or specific poets. • Also enjoyed by children for independent reading of poetry. • Eg: Mathematickles by Besty Franco and Dodle Soup by John Ciardi.
Single Illustrated Poems • Single narrative poems of medium length are presented more frequently in picture book formats. • Make poetry more appealing and accessible to many children, but the illustrations may remove the opportunity for children to form their own mental images from the language created by poets.
Elements of Poetry • Meaning • Rhythm • Sound Patterns • Figurative Language • Sense Imagery
Meaning • Underlying idea, feeling or mood expressed through the poem. • It is the way a poet chooses to express emotions and thoughts. • The meaning of the poem is the expressed or implied message the poet conveys.
Rhythm • The beat of the poem. • Poetry relies on rhythm to help communicate meaning. • A fast rhythm can provide the listener with a feeling of happiness, excitement, drama, and even tension and surprise. • A slow rhythm can evoke tranquility, inevitability, and harmony, among other feelings. • A change in rhythm during a poem signals the listener to a change in meaning.
Sound Patterns • Are made by repeated sounds and combinations of sounds in the words. • Words, phrases, or lines are sometimes repeated in their entirety. • Rhyme • Sound device that children most recognized and enjoy. • Occurs when the ends of words have the same sounds. • Eg: vat, rat, that, brat : hay, they, flay, stray
Assonance • For effect. • The same vowel sound is heard repeatedly within a line or a few lines of poetry. • Eg: hoop, gloom, moon, moot, boots. • Alliteration • Initial consonant sounds are heard frequently within a few lines of poetry. • Eg: ship, shy, shape
Consonance • Refers to a close juxtaposition of similar final consonant sounds, as in flake, chuck, stroke. • Onomatopoeia • The sounds of the word imitates the real-world sound. • Eg: buzz – sound of bee : hiss – sound of snake
Figurative Language • Takes many different forms, but it involves comparing or contrasting one object, idea, or feeling with one another. • Simile • Direct comparison or contrasting one object, idea, or feeling with one another. • Star – diamond • Gold – time • Red - blood
Metaphor • Comparison without a signal word to evoke the similarities. • In the poem “The Night Is A Black Cat”, the metaphor implies a comparison between the night sky and a black cat. • Personification • Attribution of human qualities to animate, nonhuman beings or to inanimate objects for the purpose of drawing a comparison between the animal or object and human beings. • Eg: The food is calling my name
Hyperbole • An exaggeration to highlight reality or to point out ridiculousness. • Eg. There is a river streaming down his eyes.
Sense Imagery • A poet will play on one or more of the five senses in descriptive and narrative language. • Sight • Awakened through the depiction of beauty • Hearing • Evoked by the sound of a city street • Smell and taste • Recalled through the description of a fish left too long in the sun • Touch • Sensitized through describing the gritty discomfort of a wet swimsuit caked with the sand from the beach.
What are the criteria? • Ideas and feeling expressed are worthy, fresh, and imaginative. • The expression is unique, the reader will perceive ordinary things in many ways. • Is appropriate to the experiences of children
Still on criteria… • Presents the world via a child’s perspective and focuses on their lives & activities. • Judged on the quality of the poetry first, illustrations and appearance second. • Narrative poems are preferred. • Share poems by a variety of authors.
NCTE • The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Award was established in 1977, US to honour living US poets whose poetry has contributed substantially to the lives children. • Awarded for the entire writing for children ages 3-13. • Held every 3 years.
Main issue • Although more children’s poetry is being published and teachers-students are enjoying this genre, some report that they do not share poetry because of their uncertainty about selecting poems for their students. • Thus, by learning student’s preferences in poetry, a teacher can become more skillful at selecting good, enjoyable poems for them.
Children’s Poetry Preferences • Prefer narrative poems over lyrics poems. • Limericks were well liked compared to free verse and haiku. • Enjoy poems that rhymed. • Prefer poems with regular, distinctive rhythm.
Like humourous poems, animals poems, and poems about enjoyable familiar experiences. • Prefer subjects on strange and fantastic events, animals (primary grade); realistic contents of humour, animals (intermediate) • Found figurative language in poetry confusing.
In other words… • Children’s appreciation of poetry can be broaden and deepen by a good teacher. • Hence, a good selection of rhyming, narrative poems with distinct rhythms about humourous events, animals, familiar experiences is a good starting point for students who have little experiences with poetry.
Lyric and Narrative poetry • Lyric poetry- captures a moment, a feeling or a scene and is descriptive in nature. • Narrative poetry- tells a story or includes a sequences of events
Other specific poetic forms • Limericks • Ballads • Haiku • Free verse • Concrete poetry
Limericks • Humorous • One stanza • Five-line verse form • Lines 1,2,5 rhyme and are of the same length • Lines 3,4 rhyme and are of the same length
Ballads • Ballad is a long narrative poem of popular origin • Usually adapted to singing • A traditional story poems are often romantic or heroic.
Haiku • Haiku is lyric, unrhymed poem of japanese origin • It usually arranged on 3 lines • Frequently espouses harmony with the appreciation of nature
Free verse • Unrhymed poetry with little or light rhythm • Sometimes words within lines a line will rhyme • The subject of free verse are often abstract and philosophical, they are always reflective
Concrete poetry • Written and printed in a shape • The shape signifies the subject of the poem • Must be seen and heard to be fully appreciated • It rely on the words, meaning and shapes,and the way the words are arranged to evoke images.
Teacher should provide students many opportunities to hear and say poems. • Develop a love of poetry • Students can read poetry, then begin to write poems themselves. • Poetry should be introduced first and often to children in oral form
ReAdiNgPoEtRyAloUd to ChiLdReN • Daily basis • Reading aloud expressively • Draw children’s attention to literate language • Best – one to three poems at a time • Too many = overwhelming and tedious
HoWtO ‘ReAdiNgAloUd’ • Introduce the poem first to the class • Read for its meaning • Should not overemphasize the beat of the poem • Enunciate poetry clearly • Voice effects powerful tool • Read aloud a number of times • Get the meaning, enjoyment • Response after reading • Sharing and discussions
ChoRaLPoEtRy? • Interpreting and saying a poem together as a group activity. • Encourage students to take part • Selection • Short poems first develop some skills • Memorization • Select and read aloud a well-liked poem • Teacher leads the readings, students rehearse
Arrangements • Unison • students learn the poem and recite it together as a group • 2or 3-part • arranging students into voice types • Cumulative buildup presentations • Performance • Action, gestures, movements…
StUdEnTs’ReAdiNgaNdWriTiNgPoEMs • Learning to read poetry • Silently, and/or aloud to others • Place students in pairs to take turn reading favourite poems • Ask students to select three poems by one poet • Find something about the poet
Have students find three poems on the same topic • Read them aloud in small groups • Encourage students to find poems that are of the same poetic form • Or poetic elements, or rhythms, etc.
Learning to write poetry • Should have rich poetry environment • Lots of exposure (poems, poets, etc.) • Start as collaborative effort • Class brainstorms writing group poetry compose poems in pairs individual poems • Treat poetry as a form of communication • Ideas, feeling, experience…
Have students compile their favourite poems • Design bulletin boards • Display students’ poems or by favourite poets • Posters • Encourage students to imitate specific techniques or styles • Discuss, analyze, and make it fun!