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BIOLOGI MOLEKULER
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BIOLOGI MOLEKULER

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  1. BIOLOGI MOLEKULER • Pengenalan Biologi Molekuler • Materi Genetik • Struktur dan Sifat Asam Nukleat • Replikasi DNA, Mutasi dan Repair DNA III. Ekspresi Gena Transkripsi, Translasi, dan Regulasi IV. Pertumbuhan Sel Eukariot Sel Signaling dan Siklus Sel V. Transformasi Genetik Rekombinasi, Transposon dan Retrovirus

  2. III. DAFTAR PUSTAKA Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, A.L., Matsudaira, P., Baltimore, D., Darnell, J., 2000, Molecular cell Biology, 4th ed., Freeman and Company, New York. Alberts,B., Bray, D., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Robert, K., Watson, JD., 1994, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3th ed.,Garland Publishing, Inc, New York. Devlin T.M., 2002, Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 5th ed., wiley-Liss, New York. Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L., Stryer.,2002,Biochemistry, 5th ed.,W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. Freifelder, D.,1987, Molecular Biology, 2th ed., Jones and Bartlett Publisher, Boston. Glick, B.R. and Pasternak, J.J., 1998, Molecular Biotechnology, Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA, 2nd. Ed. ASM Press, Washington DC. Brown, T.A., 2001, Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis, An Introduction, 4th ed., Blackwell Science, UK

  3. 46 Biologi Molekuler mempelajari struktur & fungsi DNA, RNA , protein Human 2.9x109 bp (Berg JM et al, 2002)

  4. BIOLOGI MOLEKULER FARMAKOLOGI MIKROBIOLOGI BIOKIMIA KIMIA MEDISINAL FARMASI PENEMUAN OBAT TANAMAN TRANGENIK VAKSIN PROTEIN OBAT ALAT DETEKSI PENYAKIT REKAYASA GENETIK TEKNOLOGI GENA FARMASETIK

  5. PERBEDAAN PROKARIOT & EUKARIOT

  6. DNA mRNA IFs, EF, RF mRNA Translation RNAses Regulatory factors Proteins Decay Turnover Interactions Localization Modification

  7. Pre-mRNA Capping Polyadenylation Splicing mRNA eIFs, eEF, eRF Storage mRNA Translation RNAses Regulatory factors Proteins Decay Turnover Interactions Localization Modification (PO4/dPO4, glycosylation)

  8. II. MATERI GENETIK Mahluk hidup tersusun dari  SEL yang dapat membelah dan menurunkan INFORMASI GENETIK nya Dibawa olehDNA: rantai polimer panjang yang merupakan rangkaian dari jutaan nukleotida Fragmen DNA yang mengkode protein, suatu unit keturunan  Gena Molekul DNA yang terdiri dari beberapa gena di paking membentuk CHROMOSOM Total informasi genetik yang tersimpan dalam kromosom  GENOM

  9. What Is Cloning? • A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism, such as the famous sheep ‘Dolly’ • Similar to an identical twin

  10. DNA Empty DNA The Making of Dolly Cloning depends on DNA Step 1: Take the Nuclei out of a sheep egg Step 2: Transfer nuclei from the Mother Sheep Egg Mother’s Egg

  11. Hello Dolly She was cloned using a cell taken from a healthy six-year-old sheep July 5, 1996, Dolly was born at the Roslin Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland

  12. Cloning and the Cell Nucleus Its all about DNA

  13. Nucleus Cloning Depends on DNA Chromosome

  14. It’s all about DNA Good-Bye Dolly • At age 3 Dolly showed signs of premature aging. • Dolly died at 6 years old from progressive lung disease (symptom of old age) • Dolly’s DNA was already 6 years old when she was born - WHY?

  15. TTAGGG Gene 1 Gene 2 DNA Telomeres Telomeres Chromosome

  16. 8,000 3,000 1,500 0 35 65 Age (years) Telomere Length Declines Telomere length in base pairs (human white blood cells)

  17. More on Dolly and Cloning Dolly’s experimenters used 277 cloned embryos to produce one sheep, meaning 276 failed. How many failures will it take to produce a human Question ?

  18. July 1998 cloned calves Cloned mouse Cloned mule Other Cloned Animals

  19. ButterCat CatCow Future Experiments

  20. SparrowBoxer TigerOwl Future Experiments

  21. JUMLAH BASA VS KOMPLEKS MAKHLUK

  22. Chromosomes 16 6 24

  23. Chromosomes 78 40 46

  24. Human Genome • Genome inti 23 pasang kromosome  2x (4x109 bp)  2 m DNA/sel • Genome mitokondria

  25. Some organisms are diploid - that is, they have paired homologous chromosomes in their somatic cells, and thus contain two copies of each gene. An organism in which both copies of the gene are identical - that is, have the same allele - is said to be homozygous for that gene. An organism which has two different alleles of the gene is said to be heterozygous

  26. Human 4 x 109  22 autosom yang berbeda 2 sex kromosom Masing2 single linier DNA E. Coli 4.7 x 106 1 Chromosom 40 – 50 loop superkoil

  27. Kromosom tanpa histon

  28. DNA CHROMOSOME

  29. KROMOSOM CENTROMER region dari chromosom yang diperlukan untuk pengikatan mitotic spindle saat proses mitosis TELOMER fragmen di ujung chromosom linier replikasi secara khusus untuk mencegah perpendekan chromosom ORIGIN REPLIKASI tempat awal replikasi berlangsung

  30. Reverse tanscription DNA Transcription Ribosome mRNA Translation Polypeptide (protein) IntroductionThe Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Cell

  31. KOMPOSISI GENA FUNGSIONAL PROMOTER OPERATOR ACTIVATOR BINDING SITE STRUKTURAL GEN : mRNA TERMINATOR

  32. Teknik yang sering digunakan Isolasi DNA & RNA Elektroforesis Hibridisasi PCR Sekuensing DNA