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CIS570 WS2 - Components of Information Systems PowerPoint Presentation
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CIS570 WS2 - Components of Information Systems

CIS570 WS2 - Components of Information Systems

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CIS570 WS2 - Components of Information Systems

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  1. CIS570 WS2 - Components of Information Systems Joseph Lewis Aguirre

  2. WS2: Components Of Information Systems • · Examine information systems, including computer hardware and software concepts. • · Analyze the use of databases as components of business solutions. • ·  Assess various network technologies and the Internet. • ·  Identify information systems security issues. • ·   Assess methods for securing the organization’s technology assets.

  3. Major E-Business Applications Electronic Business Applications Telecommunications Networks Enterprise Communication and Collaboration Electronic Commerce Internal Business Systems

  4. Electronic Communications Tools Electronic Conferencing Tools Collaborative Work Management Tools Enterprise Collaboration Tools Groupware for Enterprise Collaboration • E-Mail • Voice Mail, I Phone • Web Publishing • Faxing • Data Conferencing • Voice Conferencing • Videoconferencing • Discussion Forums • Electronic Meetings • Calendaring • Task and Project Mgt • Workflow Systems • Knowledge Mgt • Document Sharing

  5. Information Management Innovator Expert Professional Awareness Knowledge Insight What to Think How to Think

  6. Organization Types of Information Systems WGSS AI DSS MIS Transaction Flow What EIS CRM Decentralized Shared Personal IS TPS Office IS

  7. Generalized System Control Input Processing Output Environment System Components, Relationships, Boundaries, Interfaces, Constraints

  8. Modem Communications System Control Modem Modem 00100010101000110001111111000110001 Message Message Received Destination Info Source Noise

  9. Generalized Communications System Control Transmitter Transmission Channel Receiver 00100010101000110001111111000110001 Message Message Received Destination Info Source Noise

  10. Modem Communications System Control Modem Modem 00100010101000110001111111000110001 Message Message Received Destination Info Source Noise

  11. INFORMATION/KNOWLEDGE

  12. Value of Information Timeliness - is it available soon enough for it to be meaningful? Sufficiency - completeness. Is there adequate information for the purpose intended. Issues: sample size; time horizon Level of Detail or Aggregation - are the data broken down into meaningful units Redundancy - this can be a problem if there is too much redundancy or too little redundancy Understandability • practicality • simplicity • minimization of perceptual errors • difficulty with encoding

  13. Value of Information Freedom from Bias Reliability - is information is correct and verifiability Decision-Relevance - predictive power, significance Cost-efficiency - need to consider the change in the decision behavior after obtaining the information minus the cost of obtaining it Cost-effectiveness Comparability consistency of format consistency of aggregation consistency of fields

  14. Value of Information Quantifiability Appropriateness of format , medium of display ordering of the information graphical vs. tabular display Quantity: more is not better!

  15. Information Information is a function of context, closely related to such concepts as meaning, knowledge, instruction, communication, representation, and mental stimulus. We speak of the advent of the "information age," the "information society," and information technologies, and even though information science and computer science are often in the spotlight, the word "information" is often used without careful consideration of the various meanings it has come to acquire.

  16. Information - as a message As a message: communicated from the sender to the receiver. -- does not have to be accurate. It may be a truth or a lie -- may even be a disruptive noise used to inhibit the flow of communication and create misunderstanding. This model does not attach any significance to the idea that information is something that can be extracted from an environment

  17. Information - as a pattern Information is any represented pattern. Example: economic statistics represent an economy, however inaccurately

  18. Information - as sensory input Information is any type of sensory input. Example: while abstract painting does not represent anything concretely,when the viewer sees the painting, it is nevertheless transformed into electrical signals that create a representation of the painting.

  19. Information - Classification • Top secret – "exceptionally grave damage" to national security if disclosed. • Secret – "serious damage" to national security. • Confidential – information which would "damage" national security if disclosed. • Unclassified – is the default, unclassified is sometimes "restricted"

  20. Forces of Influence- Finding Nemo Professionals in various fields rely on articles in prestigious industry-specific journals to make decisions: Engineering, finance, insurance, human resources, medicine, education, politicians, etc. What some authors do: • Describe original main goal as secondary – 34% • Fail to disclose original goal – 26 % • Turn original secondary goal into main goal – 19% • Create new main goal Most Likely in: LA Times, JAMA, AMA, NY Times, WSJ?

  21. Forces of Influence- Finding Nemo Professionals in various fields rely on articles in prestigious industry-specific journals to make decisions: Engineering, finance, insurance, human resources, medicine, education, politicians, etc. What some authors do: • Describe original main goal as secondary – 34% • Fail to disclose original goal – 26 % • Turn original secondary goal into main goal – 19% • Create new main goal Most Likely in: LA Times, JAMA, AMA, NY Times, WSJ? Source WSJ: 5-11-05

  22. Knowledge Management Paradox The more competent domain experts become, the less able they are to describe the knowledge they use to solve problems

  23. Problem Solving Process Computers are useless. They can only give you answers Pablo Picasso:

  24. Processed Relevant, actionable Information Knowledge Data Contextual, relevant, actionable Knowledge

  25. Knowledge - Greek ginosko - "to come to know," and is used of knowledge acquired and communicated objectively oida, which (from idein, to "see with the mind's eye") is inward consciousness, knowledge of in one's own mind (hence a derivative of it signifies "conscience");

  26. Knowledge - Greek ginosko (with its substantive gnosis), epiginosko (with its substantive epignosis), oida, and epistamai "now I know (gin) in part, but then shall I fully know (epigin) even as also I am fully known (epigin)." The difference between the two words is the intensive character given to gnosis, "knowledge" (or its verb), by the preposition epi which is added to it, making it "a deeper and more intimate knowledge and acquaintance." The following passages in which the compound epignosis Or epiginosko is found will confirm the distinctive force of it: Rom. 3: 20; Rom. 10: 2; Eph. 1: 17; Eph. 4: 13; Phil. 1: 9; Col. 1: 6, 9, 10; Col. 2: 2 ("acknowledgement," A.V.); Col. 3: 10; 1 Tim. 2: 4; Titus 1: 1; 2 Peter 1: 2, 3, 8 (cp. Matt. 11: 27

  27. Knowledge Info Info concepts beliefs ideas Info Info Info Info

  28. Unit Step Sigmoid Piecewise Linear  Gaussian Identity   f (x) = x Activation Functions

  29. Knowledge - Bloom Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy Chart Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation

  30. Decision Making Framework Information Characteristics Decision Structure Pre specified Scheduled Detailed Frequent Historical Internal Narrow Focus Business Professionals Operational Management Efficient, do thing right Structured Tactical Management Business Unit Managers -Effective, right thing Ad Hoc Unscheduled Summarized Infrequent Forward looking External Wide Scope Semi Structured Strategic Management Executives, Directors -Transformation Un Structured RELATIVE TIME SPAN

  31. Decision Making Drivers Decision Making Drivers at Work: Decision Making Drivers at Large : Technology Complexity Competition Globalization Environmental/Regulatory Change

  32. The MBA Alphabet Soup • TQM • Six Sigma • SCM • HCSCM • VCM • VVC • Continuous Improvement

  33. Knowledge Management

  34. Knowledge Management • Structure influences behavior. • Structure in human systems is subtle. • Leverage often comes from new ways of thinking.

  35. Revolution in Learning and Knowledge Sharing From 1995–97, scientists in the United States co-authored articles with scientists from 173 other countries; Scientists in Brazil with 114, in Kenya with 81, in Algeria 59.

  36. Revolution in Learning and Knowledge Sharing The six largest internet-based distance-learning universities in the world are located in developing countries -- Turkey, Indonesia, China, India, Thailand and Korea

  37. Security

  38. Security and Risks The BCS Code of Practice says: “Asystem is at risk from the moment that the project which develops it is first conceived. This risk remains until at least after the system is finally discontinued, perhaps indefinitely. Threats to security range from incompetence, accident and carelessness to deliberate theft, fraud, espionage or malicious attack.”

  39. Security Convenience Cost Quality Scope Security Convenience

  40. The $10,000 Fence for the $1.00 Horse

  41. Know Thy Enemy In-house security breaches account for some 70-90% of all security breaches. Hurwitz Group 57% - Worse breaches occurred when their own users accessed unauthorized information. Next problem happened when user accounts remained active when users left the company. Digital Research Only 21% are concerned with external security threats.

  42. Worm Evolution 1988 - Robert Morris First worm 2001 - Code Red, exploited IIS to infect 359,00 hosts to launch a Denial Of Service attack on the White House site…random propagation caused it to clog and contain 2001 - Code Red authors learned and launched Nimda 2003 - Sapphire - exploited vulnerability in MS SQL Server 2004 - Welchia.C - compiled list of addresses - variant SoBig.F 2005 - BotNets - Worm writers partner with spammers for profit.

  43. Cost of Computer Crime Source: Computer Security Institute Insurance Council of Australia estimates $3 trillion/year

  44. Action Taken After Breach Source: Computer Security Institute

  45. Security Management of E-Business Network Protocols Encryption Security Monitors VPN Biometric Security Controls Access Control Backup Files Fire Walls Authentication

  46. Security Vs Privacy Biggest Problem isn’t about privacy…it is sloppy security -----Lee Gomes, Wall Street Journal

  47. Risk Exposure by Industry Degree of exposure to risk

  48. Security Vs Privacy Mail: 25-30 % Web Traffic: 50-60%

  49. Security Landscape • Hackers, crackers, and thieves, oh my! Viruses, worms, and trojans, oh my! • Identity theft running rampant (electronic AND in person) • Internal/external fraud on the rise • Third party vendors selling private information • Wireless networks broadcasting data • The insecure nature of academic networks

  50. Sensitive Data • Definition of “sensitive data” • Analysis of where sensitive data is used • Assessment of the security of systems with sensitive data • Securing systems with sensitive data • Developing an information security culture