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  1. chapter 5chemistry 5.1 5.2 5.3 matter The pH scale chemistry of cosmetics Chapter 5 chemistry | advance organizer

  2. Describe matter, elements of hair and structure and behavior of atoms and bonds • Describe pH scale and values associated with water, acids and alkalines • Identify precautions necessary for various classifications of chemicals when working with professional products Chapter 5 chemistry | advance organizer

  3. 5.1 matter elements chemical bonds Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | advance organizer

  4. MATTER Solid definite weight,volume and shape liquid definite weightand volume but indefinite shape Gas definite weight but indefinitevolume and shape Anything that occupies space Chapter 5 chemistry | matter

  5. Change in the physical characteristics of a substance without creating a new substance When water freezes it becomes ice. It is still water, but now it’s a solid instead of a liquid. • Physical change Chapter 5 chemistry | matter

  6. Change in a substance that creates a new substance A chemical change occurswhen hydrogen combineswith oxygen to form a new substance, water. • Chemical change Chapter 5 chemistry | matter

  7. Scientific study of matter and the physical and chemical changes of matter • Organic Chemistry: deals with matter that is living or was alive, with carbon present • Inorganic Chemistry: studies matter that is not alive, has never been alive and does not contain carbon • Chemistry Chapter 5 chemistry | matter

  8. elements Basic substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances Use this acronym to remember the elements found in hair:COHNS Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulfur Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | elements

  9. Smallest complete unit of an element COMPOSED OF THREE MAIN PARTS: • Protons: positiveelectrical charge • Neutrons: noelectrical charge • Electrons: negativeelectrical charge • Atoms Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | elements

  10. Chemical behavior of atoms depends mostly on number of electrons in the outer shell Hydrogen • Simplest atomic structure • 1 proton and 1 electron • Atomic number of 1 • atoms Positive Proton Negative Proton HYDROGEN ATOM (H) Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | elements

  11. Two or more atoms joined together by a chemical bond Two hydrogen atoms, each with one electron One oxygen atom and its eight electrons the result is H2O molecules Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | elements

  12. With an element, the atoms are the SAME • With a compound, the atoms are DIFFERENT • molecules Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | elements

  13. CHEMICAL BONDS AminoAcids: compounds consisting of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS

  14. Hair: form of protein called keratin Hair is made of 97% keratin protein and 3% trace minerals • Amino Acids Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS

  15. amino acids Peptide Bonds (End Bonds): formed when two amino acids are positioned end-to-end causing acid end of one to attach to amino end of another • Amino acids that create protein are linked together by a peptide bond • Hair is the linking together of protein groups It’s very important not to disturb peptide bonds – combining alkaline chemicals and heat could break these critical peptide bonds and destroy the protein structure. Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS

  16. FOUR SIDE BONDS • Hydrogen Bond • Salt Bond • Disulfide Bond • Van der Waal’s Forces • Amino Acids Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS

  17. FOUR SIDE BONDS • Hydrogen Bond • Works on principle that unlike charges attract • Can easily be broken by heat or water • Accounts for 35% of hair’s strength due to millions of hydrogen bonds in hair’s structure • Amino Acids Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS

  18. FOUR SIDE BONDS • Salt Bond • Result of attraction of unlike charges; the negative charge in one amino acid grouping attracts the positive charge in another • Accounts for 35% of hair’s resistance to change • Amino Acids Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS

  19. FOUR SIDE BONDS • Disulfide Bond • Results when sulfur-type side chains join with other sulfur-type side chains • Most important bond to cosmetology • Broken or reformed by chemical services, producing a chemical change with lasting results • Amino Acids Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS

  20. FOUR SIDE BONDS • Van der Waal’s Forces • Based on theory that atomic groups prefer environment with other groups that have similar structures • Not important for cosmetology services other than to know that it exists and plays a role in bonding protein chains • Amino Acids Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS

  21. Amino Acids • Hair begins with individual atoms, the smallest unit of matter • Atoms unite by sharing electrons tobecome molecules of amino acids Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS

  22. Amino Acids • The amino acids create polypeptide protein chains • The ends of the amino acids bond to form peptide bonds • The bonding of protein chains to other protein chains makes human hair Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS

  23. self-check On a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer the following questions. • Anything that occupies space existing as a solid, liquid or gas is termed __________. • All of the following are elements that form the basis of hair, nails and skin EXCEPT: • sulfur • helium • carbon • oxygen Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | self-check

  24. self-check • T or F Atoms have a nucleus containing protons and electrons. • The chemical behavior of atoms depends mostly on the number of __________ in the outer shell. Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | self-check

  25. self-check Match the term with the best description. __ Peptide bond __ Hydrogen bond __ Salt bond __ Disulfide bond • Negative charge in one amino acid grouping attracts the positive charge in another • Formed when acid end of one amino acid attaches to amino end of another • Hydrogen atom in one molecule attracted to atom of another molecule with negative electrons • Most important bond to a salonprofessional’s work Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | self-check

  26. self-check On a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer the following questions. • Anything that occupies space existing as a solid, liquid or gas is termed __________. • All of the following are elements that form the basis of hair, nails and skin EXCEPT: • sulfur • helium • carbon • oxygen matter Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | self-check

  27. self-check • T or F Atoms have a nucleus containing protons and electrons. • The chemical behavior of atoms depends mostly on the number of __________ in the outer shell. Protons and neutrons are packed together tightly to form the nucleus. Electrons move about the nucleus on orbiting paths. electrons Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | self-check

  28. self-check Match the term with the best description. __ Peptide bond __ Hydrogen bond __ Salt bond __ Disulfide bond b c a d • Negative charge in one amino acid grouping attracts the positive charge in another • Formed when acid end of one amino acid attaches to amino end of another • Hydrogen atom in one molecule attracted to atom of another molecule with negative electrons • Most important bond to a salonprofessional’s work Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | self-check

  29. face the facts MATTER • Defined as anything that occupies space ELEMENTS • The five elements found in the hair are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur • Atoms are the smallest complete unit of an element and consist of protons, neutrons and electrons Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | face the facts

  30. face the facts • Protons and neutrons located in nucleus • A molecule is two or more atoms joined by chemical bond CHEMICAL BONDS • Hair is a form of protein called keratin • Peptide bond forms when two amino acids are positioned end-to-end causing the acid end of one to attach to amino end of another Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | face the facts

  31. face the facts CHEMICAL BONDS • Hydrogen bonds give hair about 35% of its strength • Salt bonds are result of attraction of unlike charges and account for 35% of hair’s strength • Disulfide bond is most important to a salon professional’s work since many chemical services break or reform this bond into new shape Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | face the facts

  32. 5.2 the pH scale Chapter 5 chemistry | the pH scale | advance organizer

  33. THE pH SCALE pH (Potential Hydrogen): unit of measurement that indicates whether a substance is acidic, neutral or alkaline • Measures the amount of acid or alkali in a water-based solution Chapter 5 chemistry | the pH scale

  34. THE pH SCALE Acidic solutionmore positive hydrogen ions than negative hydroxide ions Neutral solution equal numberof positive andnegative ions Alkaline solution More negativehydroxide ions than positive hydrogen ions Chapter 5 chemistry | the pH scale

  35. THE pH SCALE • Ranges from 0 to 14 with number 7 as neutral • Numbers less than seven indicate acid • Numbers greater than seven indicate alkaline The scale is logarithmic, which means each step or number increases by multiples of 10 Chapter 5 chemistry | the pH scale

  36. THE pH SCALE ACID BALANCED • Means pH is between 4.5 to 5.5 • Is the term applied to most professional shampoos Acid Balanced Chapter 5 chemistry | the pH scale

  37. SELF-CHECK On a sheet of paper numbered 1-7, answer the following questions. • T or F The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 with numbers less than 7 indicating alkaline. • Distilled water has equal numbers of hydroxide ions and hydrogen ions causing it to be __________. • An acidic solution contains more __________ ions than __________ ions. • An alkaline solution contains more __________ ions than __________ ions. Chapter 5 chemistry | the pH scale |self-check

  38. self-check Match the term with the best description. __ Acidic solution __ Alkaline solution __ Neutral solution • pH value of approximately 7 • pH values less than 7 • pH values greater than 7 Chapter 5 chemistry | the pH scale |self-check

  39. SELF-CHECK On a sheet of paper numbered 1-7, answer the following questions. • T or F The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 with numbers less than 7 indicating alkaline. • Distilled water has equal numbers of hydroxide ions and hydrogen ions causing it to be __________. • An acidic solution contains more __________ ions than __________ ions. • An alkaline solution contains more __________ ions than __________ ions. neutral hydrogen hydroxide hydroxide hydrogen Chapter 5 chemistry | the pH scale |self-check

  40. self-check Match the term with the best description. __ Acidic solution __ Alkaline solution __ Neutral solution b c a • pH value of approximately 7 • pH values less than 7 • pH values greater than 7 Chapter 5 chemistry | the pH scale |self-check

  41. face the facts THE pH SCALE • Unit of measurement that indicates whether substance is acidic, neutral or alkaline • Ranges from 0 to 14; below 7 is acid; above 7 is alkaline; 7 is neutral • Logarithmic, each step or number increases by multiples of 10 • Acid balanced means the pH is in the acid range of 4.5 to 5.5 Chapter 5 chemistry | the pH scale |face the facts

  42. 5.3 chemistry of cosmetics Cosmetic Classifications Shampoos Rinses and Conditioners Perms Relaxers Curl Reformation Hair Color Product Information Chapter 5 chemistry | chemistry of cosmetics |advance organizer

  43. cosmetic classifications Six classifications categorize cosmetics used in the cosmetology industry: • SOLUTIONS • SUSPENSIONS • EMULSIONS • OINTMENTS • SOAPS • POWDERS Chapter 5 chemistry | chemistry of cosmetics |cosmetic classifications

  44. Solution: mixture of two or more kinds of evenly dispersed molecules Solute: any substance that dissolves into a liquid and forms a solution Solvent: substance that is able to dissolve another substance Mixture: two or more substances that are physically combined • Solutions Chapter 5 chemistry | chemistry of cosmetics |cosmetic classifications

  45. Water is considered a universal solvent because it is capable of dissolving more substances than any other solvent. • solutions Chapter 5 chemistry | chemistry of cosmetics |cosmetic classifications

  46. Mixture of two or more molecules that separate when left standing and need to be shaken before use. • suspensions Chapter 5 chemistry | chemistry of cosmetics |cosmetic classifications

  47. Oil-in-water Water-in-oil Perm Solutions Cold Creams Formed when two or more nonmixable substances are united by binder or gum-like substance. Immiscible = liquids not able to be mixed Miscible = liquids able to be mixed together without separating • emulsions Chapter 5 chemistry | chemistry of cosmetics |cosmetic classifications

  48. Mixtures of organic substances and a medicinal agent; usually found in semi-solid form. • ointments Chapter 5 chemistry | chemistry of cosmetics |cosmetic classifications

  49. Mixtures of fats and oils converted to fatty acids by heat and then purified. • soaps Chapter 5 chemistry | chemistry of cosmetics |cosmetic classifications