Chapter 8, Lesson 2The Home Front Mister Julian’s 5th Grade Class
Essential Question • How did World War II affect the United States economy?
Places • Los Alamos, New Mexico
People • Benjamin O. Davis Jr. • Albert Einstein
Vocabulary • Rationing • Tuskegee Airmen • Atomic Bomb • Manhattan Project
The Depression Ends • The country answered the presidents call when he asked factories to produce war goods to defeat the Axis. • All of the production had an important effect. Factories had to expand to produce all the military equipment needed. • As a result the Great Depression came to an end.
New Jobs for Women • When World War II began, 350,000 women served in the military as nurses, airplane pilots, radio operators, and mechanics. • Millions more took over the jobs the men left behind in factories, farms, and other areas. • There was even an all Girls Baseball League during the war.
“Do Your Part” • Americans were encouraged to “Do Your Part” during the war. • Children organized “Scrap drives” collecting cans and old pots. • With millions of soldiers to feed there were food shortages. • People were called to ration their food, gas, and tires.
“Do Your Part” • Everyone got a certain amount of stamps for meat, dairy, canned veggies, coffee, and even gas. • If you wanted to buy that item you had to give the store a stamp. When you ran out of stamps you could not buy that product.
New Opportunities • With many more job openings in factories in the north this gave African Americans new opportunities. • Discrimination kept many from these jobs before the war. • The military also segregated black and white soldiers.
New Opportunities • Some African Americans wanted to serve their country like Benjamin O. Davis Jr. • Davis and 12 others started the first fighter pilot training for blacks in Tuskegee Alabama. They became known as the Tuskegee Airmen. • They served proudly over North Africa and Europe.
Japanese Americans • After Pearl Harbor, Japanese Americans were distrusted by many. • In February 1942, Presidential Order # 9066 allowed the military to relocate anyone seen as a threat to internment camps. • By the summer, more than 110,000 were living in these camps.
Technology and War • The war had both sides developing new technologies to help their side. • Albert Einstein, a German Jew, came to the U.S. after Hitler took power. • He believed that an Atomic Bomb could be made and he felt that Germany was likely working on one as well.
Technology and War • In 1942, the U.S. started the Manhattan Project, the code name for the atomic bomb. • The secret lab was located in Los Alamos, New Mexico. • By 1945, the atomic bomb was complete.
Technology and War • Scientists and mathematicians worked to develop secret codes to communicate. • They also worked on breaking the other sides codes. • The U.S. used the Navajo language, which was never broken.
TimeLine • 1942 - More than 100, 00 Japanese Americans were removed from their homes on the West Coast. • 1942 - The United States government began the Manhattan Project, a secret effort to build an atomic bomb. • 1944 - Millions of American women worked in the countries weapons factories.
Written Response • How did World War II affect the American economy?