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Cells (Division of Labour )

Cells (Division of Labour )

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Cells (Division of Labour )

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  1. Cells(Division of Labour) Chapter 24

  2. In this chapter, you will learn… • that cells of similar structures are organised into tissues • that several tissues may make up an organ • that organs are organised into systems • to explain the significance of division of labour

  3. Unicellular Organisms Paramecium Amoeba

  4. Unicellular Organisms • Paramecium • Microscopic organism • Found on surface of water (eg: pond, river) • Has hair surrounding the body for movement • Has a mouth

  5. Unicellular Organisms • Amoeba • Often found at bottom of ponds or under rocks • Does not move fast • No arms, legs, eyes, mouth • Eats by surrounding its prey with its body • Lives only for 2 days • Reproduce by spliting itself into 2 new amoebas

  6. Multicellular Organisms • Have many different cells • Different cells perform different functions • Examples • Plants • Humans

  7. Cells in a Human • Examples • Red blood cell (transport oxygen) • Nerve cell (have nerve fibres to transmit signals to and from the central nervous system)

  8. Cells in a Plant • Examples • Root hair cell • Leaf guard cell

  9. From cells to tissues • Tissue • Group of similar cells that are specialised to perform a particular function

  10. Tissues in a Human • Epithelial tissue • Covering or lining tissue to protect structure beneath it Connective tissue • Joins, stores or supports all parts of an organism

  11. Tissues in a Human • Muscle tissue • Cause movement • Nerve tissue • Carry messages from one part of body to another by conducting electrical signals

  12. Tissues in a Plant • Epidermal tissue • Protects plant against injury and losing too much water • Vascular tissue • Transports materials within a plant

  13. Tissues in a Plant • Photosynthesis tissue • Carries out photosynthesis in a plant

  14. From Tissues to Organs • Organ • Group of specialised tissues that are gathered in a certain part of the body to perform a particular function together

  15. Organs in a Human • Examples • Skin • Lungs • Heart

  16. Organs in a Plant • Examples • Leaves • Stem • Roots • Flowers

  17. From Organs to Systems • System • Different organs working together to perform a major function in an organism

  18. Main Organ Systems in a Human • Respiratory system • Digestive system • Blood circulatory system • Skeletal system • Muscular system

  19. Nasal Passage Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchus Bronchioles Alveoli Respiratory System

  20. Respiratory System • Respiration • Process in which cells release energy from the food we eat • Oxygen is required • Carbon dioxide is removed

  21. Exhalation Inhalation Respiratory System • Mechanics of breathing

  22. Mouth Pharynx Oesophagus Liver Stomach Large Intestine Small Intestine Villi Digestive System

  23. Digestive System • Digestion • Process in which large, insoluble food substances are broken down into smaller, soluble food substances for absorption into blood

  24. Blood Circulatory System

  25. Blood Circulatory System • Transports nutrients, gases, water and hormones to different parts of the body • Include red blood cells, white blood cells, heart, blood vessels Red blood cells White blood cells

  26. Skeletal System

  27. Skeletal System • Supports our body • Gives us shape • Protects our organs • Enables movement

  28. Deltoid Pectoralis major Biceps brachi Gluteus maximus Rectus femoris Gastrocnemius Muscular System

  29. Muscular System • Enables movement by contraction and relaxation of muscles • 3 muscle types: • Skeletal muscles • Smooth muscles • Cardiac muscles

  30. Other systems in Human • Reproductive System - Produces sex cells (sperm, ovum) • For reproduction • Nervous System - Consists of the brain, spinal cord and nerves found throughout our body - Controls and coordinates functions throughout our body - Enables us to respond to changes around us

  31. Urinary bladder Vas deferens Prostate gland Seminal vesicle Epididymus Urethra Penis Testis Male Reproductive System

  32. Fallopian tube Uterus Urinary bladder Vagina Anterior View SagittalView Fallopian tube Uterus Ovary Vagina Female Reproductive System

  33. Cerebrum Corpus callosum Thalamus Hypothalamus Midbrain Cerebellum Pons Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Nervous System

  34. Plant Transport System

  35. From Systems to Organisms • Organism • Made up of different systems working effectively in a coordinated manner

  36. CELLS TISSUES ORGANS SYSTEMS ORGANISM The Human Body - An organism

  37. Division of Labour • Each cell in a multicellular organism does not perform all the bodily functions. • Each type of cell specialisesin performing one particular function. • Different functions in a multicellular organism can be performed at the same time by division of labour.

  38. Division of Labour • Division of labour • Sharing different functions in an organism among its cells, tissues, organs and systems • Ensures smooth running and effective working of the different parts in an organisms as well as the organism as a whole