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Unit 3

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Unit 3

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  1. Unit 3 Classical Civilizations

  2. Classical Civilizations • Define: • Maurya (India) • Greece • Rome • Han (China) • The Fall of Empires

  3. “Classical Civilization” – Very highly organized civilization that contributed many things to our lives today B.C. A.D. 1 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 200 400 Greek Roman Maurya - India Han - China

  4. Maurya Civilization • Location: Northern India – Indus River Valley • Why we study about Mauryan Civilization: • Created a bureaucracy (system that runs a government) • Ran a centralized government – all cities report to one location, all laws come from one location

  5. Chandragupta Maurya Ashoka

  6. Han dynasty • Location: Eastern China • Contributions to our society: (Han Dynasty) • Paper • Wheelbarrow • Rudder • Acupuncture

  7. Great Wall of china • Built to keep invading army from the north • Before the use of bricks, the Great Wall was mainly built from rammed earth, stones, and wood. • 1,387.2miles • Only man made structure visible from Earth

  8. Silk: - Very popular trade product, soft natural fiber (Chinese law: no silk worms or mulberry bushes could be exported from China) - “Silk Road” was created; connected China with the Middle East Civil Service Exam: - Must pass a test to get a government job (merit not family) - Based upon the teachings of Confucius Dynasty System: - A line of ruling families in China - Each ruling family claimed the Mandate of Heaven Mandate of Heaven: - The belief that families are given the right to rule by the gods

  9. Greece Religion: - Polytheistic (the belief in many gods) - Each god controlled some part of the natural world - Titans - Mythology (Prometheus, Hercules, Perseus, The Odyssey, Troy, etc…….)

  10. Greek Hierarchy of Gods • Titans: Chaos, Gaia, Uranus, Rhea, Cronos, etc… • The 12 Olympians: Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Athena, Ares, Hades, Apollo, Artemis, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Hermes, & Dionysus • Mythology: Minotaur & the Labyrinth, Prometheus Flame, Medusa and Perseus, 12 Labors of Hercules, The Trojan War, The Odyssey of Odysseus, The 3 Sisters of Fate, etc…

  11. Greek History: • City States: • Greece is made up of mountainous islands – because of difficulty traveling and communicating; no centralized governments formed • As a result city-states developed, which consisted of a city and its surrounding land • ATHENS Vs. SPARTA: 2 Main City-States, fought against each other in the Peloponnesian War

  12. Alexander the Great: - Took over the “then known world” (Egypt, Persia, & India) Hellenistic Culture: - A blend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian culture (a great example of cultural diffusion) - Created by Alexander the Great

  13. Contributions to our society • Architecture: - Created “Classical” Architecture - Columns for support (Doric, Ionic, & Corinthian) - Straight lines and basic shapes (triangle, squares, and rectangles - Many of the buildings in Washington D.C. are modeled after Greek architecture (White House, Capital, etc…) • Philosophy: - Science of thinking about difficult and important issues - SOCRATES – PLATO – ARISTOTLE: Great Greek Philosophers • Democracy: - Type of Government – citizens help decide important issues established in Athens • Citizen: - Only free males (no women, slaves or foreigners)

  14. Roman Empire Development: 1.) Started as a monarchy (king), 2.) A republic was formed as more people were assimilated into the empire (vote for representatives to make decisions), 3.) Empire (rulers called Caesar), Caesars make all the decisions for the people Its location: Began in Italy (Rome) – the empire surrounds the Mediterranean Sea and was large enough to unite Europe with the Middle East (trade, common language [Latin], common government)

  15. The “Republic” : Type of government where citizens elect representatives who decide on important issues (laws, taxes, etc…) government in Rome before it became an empire • Pax Romana or “Roman Peace”: Began with Augustus Caesar; 200 years of peace and prosperity (the Golden Age of Rome)

  16. Contributions to our society • Religion: - Copied Greek religion, just changed the names of Gods • Literature: - Continued the Greek tradition of drama, poetry, and novels • Engineering: - Architecture – copied Greek “classical” architecture, added round shapes (arch and dome) - Arch: replaced columns for support – stronger than columns, could build larger structures with more open space - Aqueducts – carry fresh water from countryside to cities - Roads – 1.) built first great roadways, 2.) move army quickly, 3.) improved trade across empires • Laws: - 1.) Applied to all people within the empires, 2.) basis for our legal system today, 3.) 12 Tables were the written laws of Rome 5. Latin Language: - Allowed everyone to communicate throughout the empire - Common language of Europe for many centuries

  17. How Empires Fall Apart HAN DYNASTY ROMAN EMPIRE People become corrupt and lazy Empires become too big to manage Foreign invasions Taxes get to high

  18. Essential Questions • What does it mean to call a civilization classical? - Each development many things that our culture still uses; paper, gunpowder, arches, columns, laws, language, science, math, philosophy, etc… - They are the basis for our civilization today! • How did the geography cause the rise of city-states in Greece? - Mountains and islands were a barrier to travel and communications which restricted the Greek people from having a centralized government - People were isolated in small communities (cities and surrounding land) • Generally, what was the status of women and slaves in classical civilizations? - Not considered as citizens - Inferior to free men - No education - Roles limited – home-centered life • How are the contemporary (today’s) democratic governments rooted in classical civilizations? - Maurya: centralized government, bureaucracy - Han: civil service exam - Greece: democracy - Rome: laws, republic