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An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

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An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

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  1. An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere The Scope of Ecology Abiotic Factors of the Biosphere Aquatic and Terrestrial Biomes Concepts of Organismal Ecology

  2. The Scope of Ecology • Study of interactions between organisms and their environment (biotic and abiotic) • Hierarchy: Ecosystem ecology Community ecology Population ecology

  3. Abiotic Factors of the Biosphere Biosphere: the global ecosystem • Temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks and soil, periodic disturbances • Climate (prevailing weather conditions of a locality), usually most concerned with rainfall and temperature

  4. Aquatic Biomes Largest part of biosphere (75+%) Freshwater < 1% salt Marine > 3% salt Terrestrial biomes Determined by climate Grade into each other, lack sharp boundaries Dynamic, disturbances rather than stability is the rule Aquatic and Terrestrial Biomes

  5. Aquatic Ecosystems-Freshwater Often exhibit vertical stratification • Lakes (oligotrophic, mesotrophic, and eutrophic) • Streams and rivers-move continuously in one direction • Wetlands-one of the richest and most valuable biome • Estuaries-freshwater merges with the ocean, very productive

  6. Aquatic Ecosystems-Marine • Marine biomes • Intertidal zone • Coral reefs • Oceanic pelagic biome (open waters off shore) • Benthos-ocean bottom

  7. Terrestrial Biomes • Often named for major physical or climatic features, and for the predominant vegetation • Deserts, grasslands, savannahs, deciduous forest, rainforest, taiga, chaparral, and tundra