2734 Critical Research Study • Assess the candidate’s ability to independently research, investigate and analyse a media topic and to present findings. • Research in depth one of the nine topics in the area of audience and institution and to develop an independent critical response.
The Exam • There will be two questions for each topic you must answer both. • Question 1 = research • Question 2= Analysis and preparation • You are allowed to take in 4 pages of notes
The Heart of the Matter This Unit is designed to assess the ability to undertake: Individual research Investigation into and Analysis of a Media Topic Presentation of Findings
What do we want to see? Evidence of: Active Investigation Awareness of the key areas of: Audience Institutions Academic and Critical Perspectives
Where do we begin? Have a point of discussion – a coherent hypothesis. Stay away from the descriptive and/or purely historical account. Don’t allow yourself to simply to choose the “easy” option. The work should be research and investigation – Not simply an attempt to “prove” a pre-conceived point of view.
Topics Advertising Children and the Media Community Radio Crime and the Media Politics and the Media Sport and the Media Television Drama Women and Film World Cinema
Advertising Avoid just describing a single campaign. Remember it must be discursive. Consider for example: To what extent does advertising sell products to people rather than just people to producers.
Television Drama Don’t necessarily go down the Soap route now that it’s not on Issues and Debates. Don’t allow the assumption that television drama has dumbed down. Consider for example: To what extent can a television dramatist such as Dennis Potter be considered an auteur?
World Cinema Anything that is not UK or US Cinema. Single films too narrow. Try something that might stretch or excite. Consider for example: Rites of passage in film with reference to films such as: The Cave of the Yellow Dog – Byambasuren Davaa Moolaade – Sembene Ousmane Yaaba – Idrissa Ouedrago Or nearer to home The Magdalene Sisters – Peter Mullen The Butcher Boy – Neil Jordan
Critical Research Study Basic approaches for candidates to structured responses
Question One • Introduction – What specific area of study are you considering? • What is your specific focus/hypothesis/problematic?
At least a paragraph on each method and include • Summary of the method • At least two sources for secondary research – briefly summarised and fully referenced • Strengths and weaknesses of both methods and sources outlined • It is also useful to show how one method may link into the next
Sources for Research might include: • Books • Internet (need to distinguish between institutional sources, fan sites, academic studies) • Journals and Magazines • Newspapers • Textual analysis • Interviews • Questionnaires (if appropriate) • Online forums/blogs
Conclusion for Question One • The response to Question One must conclude with a summary of how successful the research has been.
Additional key points • Remember that there must be reflection on and evaluation of both methods and sources • Remember that Google is not a source in itself but a method of accessing sources • Questionnaires are not compulsory – they must be appropriate • Do not restrict questionnaires and/or focus groups to students in your own centre or, even worse your own class
Question Two • Ensure that there is a clear distinction between the two responses. • Question One was about methods and question two is discussion of findings • Introduction to Question Two could begin with a presentation of the key issues that relate to your area of study. • Focus could be a key concept
Specific Areas of StudyWorld Cinema • Funding and Distribution [Institutions] • Reception and Interpretation [Audiences] • Representation of Culture [Representation.] • Similarities/Differences with reference to western films [Forms and Conventions] Remember that reference to western films must be exceptionally limited
Television Drama • Budgets/scheduling/distribution in other formats e.g. DVD [Institutions] • Representation of social groups and/or contemporary issues [Representation] • Audience pleasures/popularity [Audience] • Genres – whether innovative or not [Forms and Conventions] • Specific writers e.g. Russell T Davies [Auteur]
Politics and the Media • How we learn about issues and politics [Representation] • Forms and Conventions of Political Coverage • Bias, Balance and PSB [Institutions] • Agenda setting – Politics, the Media and Spin • Media, Politics and the Cult of Personality
Sport and the Media • Representation in Sport – Nationalism, Gender • Dominance of specific sports or specific teams. • Coverage of minority sports • Interdependence of Media and Sport • Audience reception of sport
Children and the Media • Concerns as to what is represented to children and how they are represented • Impact of media texts upon children and pleasures of reception • Importance of child audiences to media institutions • Forms and conventions of children’s media texts
Next Steps • Discuss how your specific area of study relates to the topic as a whole • Thorough discussion on principal conceptual areas as appropriate for hypothesis – but should not be simply one concept discussed • Ideas MUST be supported by evidence from researches • Must engage in discussion/argument and NOT merely making statements
Final Notes for Exam • Under no circumstances have notes that are complete answers in abbreviated form • Prepare responses thoroughly • Practise answers to each question separately • Check accuracy of your research • Complete research before trying to discuss findings
QUANTATIVE • A TYPE OF RESEARCH BASED ON NUMBERS, STATISTICS AND OFTEN INVOLVES TABLES. IT MEASURES SOMETHING, SUCH AS VIEWING RATES, TIME WATCHING TV ETC. IT USUALLY INVOLVES LARGE AMOUNTS OF PEOPLE
QUALITATIVE • EXPLAINS SOMETHING AND MAY INCLUDE DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF OPINIONS AND ATTITUDES. A MORE FOCUSSED GROUP OF PEOPLE IS USED.
METHODOLOGY • QUESTIONNAIRES AND SURVEYS (THINK CAREFULLY ABOUT QUESTIONS AND THINK ABOUT WHO, WHAT , WHERE, WHEN, HOW) • INTERVIEWS • FOCUS GROUPS
CONTENT ANALYSIS • What are you looking for? • What texts will you use? • Will you use all of the text? • Categories or aspects of research • Logging research • Analysis • Reflection
PRIMARY YOUR OWN ORIGINAL RESEARCH USING OTHER PEOPLE’S RESEARCH SECONDARY
Using Secondary Data • Use books, internet and contact firms • Accurately reference everything you use • For books: author, date, title, publisher • For Internet: URL and date you accessed it • Non-print based: director, title, broadcasting channel, date or broadcast
Question One: This will be about the methods of research that you have used to investigate the topic Question Two A more general question based on an area of the topic The Content of the Exam
You must show: • Proficiency is using range primary/secondary • Selecting appropriate research • Referencing of resources- accurate • Relevant resources • Findings are comprehensive • Independence • Sophisticated analysis with personal response • Skilful comparisons of texts • Specific examples to support arguments
Representation • Way in which the world is interpreted and presented by the media. • They do this through a series of signs • It is important to remember that it is never the truth or objective but a re-presentation • Remember that it is selective and edited • Stereotyping
Ideology • Part of representation • Belief systems • The media is a powerful way of emphasising these and creating them
Hegemony • The theory that people are influenced into accepting the ideology of a powerful elite who impose there ideology on the population. • It argues that the reason these people rule is because the population allows them to • In other words the media has to persuade us that it has our best interests at heart for us to accept them as dominant. • This is a theory by Marxist critic Antonio Gramsci
Hypodermic Needle Theory • The media injects ideas into a passive audience, like giving them a drug.
Question 1 Accounts of the kinds of research undertaken, to include the following: • The producers, institution or industry concerned • Academic criticism • Popular criticism • Audience reception, including the candidate her/himself
How to structure essay Q1: Introduction: Briefly outline the types of research that you have done. Use words such as primary/secondary, academic/popular, qualitative/quantitative
Main section Have sections on: • The institution • Academic criticism • Popular criticism • Audience reception You must: Discuss primary and secondary resources, relevant resources, detailed examples of your findings, accurate references.
Conclusion Sum up your research and tell the examiner what you found particularly useful and what you do not.
Question 2 Analysis and presentation of the research undertaken, to include the following: • The investigative process and the findings of the research • The presentation and development of an argument or thesis, with reference to research and textual evidence • Where appropriate, conclusions
Structuring a response • Introduction- give a basic response to the question that you will extend on in the essay • Main section- decide on three/four main areas that you are going to discuss your findings of (related to question). With each one discuss the opinions of other (references), your own research with findings and give specific (referenced) examples of case studies etc that prove your findings- comparing examples in each section. PEEL still applies • Conclusion- Sum up your findings with reference to the question
Have you got…? • Primary research with conclusions • Case study notes and your own conclusions and opinions • Content analysis notes • Academic criticism- with notes/own conclusions • Popular criticism with notes/own conclusions • Hypotheses with conclusions
Do’s: Have brief notes to jog your memory Use personal research- especially primary Reference everything Develop a series of hypotheses based around what you have studied with notes on your conclusions and references Discuss one or two of these hypotheses in Q2 to focus your answer Use evidence to back up your ideas- compare different pieces of evidence Don’t: Have long, prosaic notes Use sources without referencing Use only one example Just write down everything that you know. Examiner’s report
Guidance on Candidates’ Notes • Candidates are able to take 4 sides of A4 research notes into the examination; these must be submitted with the candidate’s examination script. • The purpose of these notes is to serve as an aide memoire for the candidate, for detailed information, as below. • The notes, which must be hand-written by the candidate him/herself, should cover primary and • They should not contain essay plans or continuous prose. • On no account should additional sheets or materials be brought into the examination room, nor should the research notes be word-processed, printed, photocopied or typewritten. • It is recommended that candidates collect their research findings carefully during the course of their Critical Research Study, which should then be selected and edited carefully at a reasonable period before the examination and presented as the final four sides of research notes.
Hypotheses • Now you have done research make up 3 hypotheses based on your research • Give references and citations for evidence • Your conclusions
Final Thought Human happiness is composed of so many pieces that some are always missing. Jacques Bousset