1960’s – A Time of Change Chapters 21 & 24
1960’s Timeline 1959 Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba 1960 Pres. Kennedy elected 1961 Berlin Wall built in Germany 1963 March on Washington 1963 South Vietnamese government overthrown 1963 JFK Assassinated 1963 Equal Pay Act passed by Congress 1964 Pres. Johnson elected 1965 La Huelga – grape strike 1966 Black Panther Party begins 1966 Gandhi becomes Prime Minister of India 1967 6 Day War Israel v. many Arab nations 1968 Kerner Commission releases report 1968 N. Korea takes a U.S. Navy ship – crew released 1 year later 1968 American Indian Movement organized 1968 Pres. Nixon elected 1973 U.S. forces negotiate a peace treaty in Vietnam 1975 N. Vietnamese capture S. Vietnamese capital (Saigon)
I Spy…Pg. 1 and 2 in Packet Key Vocabulary Domino Theory Ho Chi Minh Vietcong Escalation Defoliants – List the most widely used Search-and-destroy missions Ngo Dinh Diem Le Loi Vietminh Vietnamization Map Skills (Pg.707/714) Locate the following: Vietnam Mekong Delta Hanoi Ho Chi Minh City Red River Delta DMZ Cambodia Laos Ho Chi Minh Trail
1960 Election 22 Amendment stopped Eisenhower from running for another term. SO... John F. Kennedy vs. Richard Nixon What is the 22 Amendment???
JFK –LARGER than LifeDuring life AND in Death Ask anyone who was alive on November 22, 1963 where they were on that day and they will be able to tell you where they were and what they were doing when they heard the terrible news... Their beloved president was DEAD!
JFK – Has gone down as one of the best Presidents in US History… We are going to use our “Detective Hats” to prove (or disprove) this statement Turn to Pg. 3 in Packet
Debate: Opening Remarks Kennedy 0-7:30 Nixon 7:30-10:00
Positives / Negatives of Each Nixon Experienced Mature looking Stood on camera during debates looking worn out JFK Vibrant Good/young looking Catholic Stood on camera during debates looking fit, energetic & relaxed Selection of LBJ
1960 Inauguration & White House Make Over Jackie brought “appreciation of arts” to the White House and organized a major restoration on the White House. First time young kids were in White House since Theodore Roosevelt (1901) Reality – Family took effort to control public appearance JFK – did not take photos in his glasses and later manipulated lighting to hide a double chin JFK – suffered from Addison’s disease and was in physical pain “half of his day’s on earth”
Kennedy’s Domestic Policy The New Frontier Increase government spending Unemployment was high Informal wage and price controls Campaign against steel companies Feared rise in steel prices would lead to higher prices of goods Felt they were not “sacrificing” Canceled government contracts Proposed tax reduction Did not pass in Congress Helped disadvantaged
Kennedy’s Foreign PolicyFill out Pg. 4 in Packet Had trouble getting legislation passed Southern Dems & Conservative Reps didn’t like JFK’s agenda & voted against
Bay of PigsFill out Pg. 5 in Packet Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
Bay of Pigs Who? Fidel Castro overthrew gov. 1959 What? JFK allowed CIA to proceed with a plan to overthrow Castro When? April 17, 1961 Where? Invasion on Pay of Pigs, Cuba Why? Important because invasion was a disaster How? Disaster because we did not give the support Cuban rebels needed and looked weak to the Soviet Union
Because we were “weak”…Soviets Berlin Crisis Because people were leaving East Berlin, Soviets built Berlin Wall in 1961 How does this show the real meaning of the Cold War?? Cuban Missile Crisis Soviet missiles to Cuba Oct. 1962 – CIA noticed many nuclear weapons JFK – Stated that armed ships to Cuba would be forced back & demanded Soviets remove missiles Soviets complied & US removed some missiles from foreign sites
Johnson’s Great Society Launched War on Poverty Created an Office of Economic Opportunity to create antipoverty programs Work/Job training, Head Start & VISTA (domestic peace corps) Had little trouble passing legislation 1964 Election – Johnson vs. Goldwater Portrayed Goldwater as extremist Peace Little Girl Commercial
We’re on the way to the Great Society… Medicare- Medicaid- Higher Education –Helped low-income, qualified students attend college Housing & Urban Development Act –Assists low-income families in obtaining affordable housing Elem. & Secondary Education Act- Corporation for Public Broadcasting- Civil Rights Acts Pg. 641-2 Fill out Pg. 5 in Packet
We’re on the way to the Great Society… Medicare- National insurance for people over 65 Medicaid- Provides free health care to needy Higher Education –Helped low-income, qualified students attend college Housing & Urban Development Act –Assists low-income families in obtaining affordable housing Elem. & Secondary Education Act- Provided money to schools in poor areas Corporation for Public Broadcasting- Non-Profit that offers educational television programming. Civil Rights Acts Pg. 641-2
End of Great Society – back to Cold War • 22,000 Marines to Dominican Republic to contain communist influence • 1966 – Spent more on War in Vietnam than on War on Poverty • Decline in Johnson’s Great Society because he lost focus on his programs and gave new focus to Vietnam
Miranda RightsMiranda v Arizona said-_________________________________________ You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to have an attorney present before any questioning. If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed to represent you before any questioning. Do you understand these rights? Pg. 644
Read Background of Miranda Case , use Bill of Rights handout and Pg. 644 to complete the table. Fill out Pg. 6 in Packet
LBJ’s Legacy Video
Introduction to the War in Vietnam Chapter 24 Pages 704-705
Look at the timeline… Find something that you find interesting, then find a partner wearing the same color as you and tell them what you found and why you thought it was interesting. When you are both finished sharing, return to your seats and we will get started!!
Did you know?? Vietnam won its independence from France in 1954. 2 million Americans served in Vietnam The conflict lasted more than a decade and left deep emotional scars on people of both Vietnam and the US. Many people were left displaced and came to the states.
Build on what you know…Write your answers on Pg. 7 in your packet After WWII, the US opposed the spread of ____________ in the world. In the early 1950’s, the US fought in ________. In the 1960’s, the US fought this unpopular war. ____________
Do you agree or disagree with the following statements:Write your answers on Pg. 7 in your packet. Under certain circumstances, one nation has the right to intervene in the affairs of another. The system of checks and balances will be damaged if one branch of government becomes too strong. In a democracy, there should be no limits to a person’s right to protest government actions. Please support your answers.
Chapter 24:War in Vietnam Section 1: Background to Conflict
Let’s Get Started!! In your notebook, write down 10 words that you associate with Vietnam. We will make a class list when you are finished.
Why did China and France want to control Vietnam? Thousands of years ago—200 BC Agriculture 1400’s Le Loi rebels 1800’s Imperialism French Indochina
Ho Chi Minh • He Who Enlightens • Nguyen That Thahn • Communist • Lived in China and Soviet Union
Ho Chi Minh and France • Vietminh—1941 • Hold off the Japanese and claim independence • Famous Speech • US backs France instead—Why? • Domino Effect • Mao Zedong
France Faces Defeat • US backed France faced defeat after defeat • Ho Chi Minh quote page 708 • Dien Bien Phu • French defeated 1954 Dien Bien Phu fell on May 7, 1954, and the defeated French left Indochina shortly thereafter. Here, captured French soldiers trudge through the fields after the surrender at Dien Bien Phu. (AP photo/Vietnam News Agency)
The Geneva Conference • Chinese • Communist • Limit the US influence but opposed a strong Vietnam • Americans • Did not want it to become all Communist. Results: Cease-fire but no political settlement 17th Parallel until the election of 1956 —US refuses
The US enters the war • 1961 - JFK wanted to save image after Bay of Pigs and aided South Vietnam in order to assert power – Backed Diem
National Liberation Front • Vietminh still living in the South but funded by the North • Overthrow Diem • Vietcong—Vietnamese Communists in the south that supported the north
The Rule of Ngo Dinh Diem • Very unpopular • Election was rigged • Roman Catholic- • Predominant religion—Buddhists • Diem’s family in control • Ruthless and brutal • Favored wealthy
Diem’s Overthrow • November of 1963 • Buddhist had planned an overthrow • Henry Cabot Lodge meets with Diem • Both he and his brother were killed • Kennedy said, shortly after the fall of Diem, “In the final analysis, it is their (the South Vietnamese) war. They are the ones who have to win or lose it.”
The Tonkin Gulf Resolution Gave the president the authority to take “all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States.” By this time the president is LBJ!
Escalation of Forces in Vietnam Selective Service calls up draft 13,700 called up to serve More than 2 million men served in Vietnam Song of War
Who made up the troops? 1 out of 4 were excused for health reasons Another 30% received exemptions or deferments for college Typically younger, poorer, and less educated than WWII and Korea Soldiers High percent of African American and Hispanics served and were killed.
Life of a Soldier Video 4:43 Read Views of Vietnam Pg. 716