retrieval tools n.
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  2. What? Retrieval Tools! • System/Devices created for retrieving information • Contains records that are surrogates [change] for information packages • Each surrogate records contains enough information to serve as a short representation of the information • Author • Title • Date creation, etc.

  3. What? Retrieval Tools! • Access points are needed to retrieve surrogate records • Name • Title • Subject terms • In online systems • Keywords • Any words (that is not a stop word)

  4. Functions of Retrieval Tools • Identify/Finding an entry of known item in the information agencies • Collocation/Gathering the information • Evaluating and selecting the information • Provide enough information to determine whether or not to pursue the acquisition of actual information package • Save the time of the user – whether the information package is a book, an archival artifact or a webpage

  5. Basic Retrieval ToolsCATALOG • List of materials • Provide access to individual items in the collections • Arranged in some systematic order • Maintained under authority control • Access point • Author • Title • Subject • keyword

  6. Functions/Purpose of Catalog • Employee of the institution • Collection development • Patrons of the institution • Find materials that they need • Show what the institution has • Assist in choosing materials

  7. Forms of Catalog • Book • Card • COM (Computer Output Microform) • OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog)

  8. Book Catalog • Originally handwritten lists • Then printed in alphabetical or classified order • Widely use in the 60s &70s • Computer made easy & less expensive to make • Large card catalogs become unwieldy • Rapid growth of new libraries • Up-to-date by producing supplements • 1900s almost completely replaced with cards

  9. Advantages Compact Portable Consulted anywhere Disadvantages Expensive Multiple look-ups for one search because of supplements New materials cannot be represented during that time Book Catalog

  10. Still in use? • Exhibits • Special collections • Access to older materials

  11. Card Catalog • 3” X 5” cards, one entry per card • Popularized by LC, made available for sale in 1901 • Each entry can be revised, inserted, or deleted without affecting other entries • Most are now being replaced by online catalogs

  12. Still in use? • Small institutions • Places where only small conversion of data to machine-readable form done

  13. COM Catalog • Started in 60s in microfiche or microfilm and require microreader to use • Produced liked book catalogs • Replaced by online catalogs

  14. Advantages Economy in duplication Completely reproduced with new edition about every 3 months Disadvantages Need appropriate reader machine for viewing Readers hard to use and difficult to read COM Catalog

  15. OPAC • Predominant form of catalog today • Retrieve records directly from computer database, either from computer memory or CD-ROM discs • Records displayed only as needed • Flexibility in the look of the display • Provide instant feedback • Availability of more access points • Integrated with other library operations

  16. Catalogs arrangements • Must be arranged to be useful and make sense to the user • For easy retrieval process • Types of arrangement • Dictionary catalog • Divided catalog • Classified catalogs

  17. Dictionary Catalog • All entries (main, added, subject and cross-references) are interfiled in a single alphabetic sequences • Develop by Charles Cutter, as he found it was becoming more difficult to predict subject categories as it multiplied

  18. Divided/Split Catalog • 1930s dictionary catalogs becoming cumbersome • Large libraries (US) starts dividing catalogs into 2 sections • Subjects • Main and added entries • Then they divided into 3 sections • Author • Title • Subject • User knows in advance which type of entry is needed, spared time and effort

  19. Classified Catalog • A subject catalog in which entries are filed in the notational order [characters used to represent the main classes and subdivisions of a classification system]of a pre-established classification system • With bibliographic records under many subject headings as apply to the content of each item. • All cards arrange according to the classification number same as the arrangement at the shelves

  20. Classified Catalog • Needs to provide a section that lists verbal presentation of all topics and gives notation for that topics, or • Provide a copy of the classification schedule at the catalog as it is impossible to know all the classification notations relating to a subject • Needs also to provide a section of catalogs for those who want to search for authors and/or titles

  21. Classified Catalog • Widely used traditionally in European countries to cater for several language • Now becoming more widely use because access to catalogs on the net is global, it can hold and display records in any language • It make browsing and broadening and narrowing of searches easy

  22. Basic Retrieval ToolsBibliography • List of information packages • Subject matter • Authors • Publication • Edition, etc. • Some include annotations [a brief note, usually two or three sentences, added after a citation in a bibliography to describe or explain the content or message of the work cited] • Description constructed by APA [American Psychological Association] or MLA [Modern Language Association] • Each bibliography has a particular focus or arrangement either by subject, author, language, time period, location, publisher or form • Pathfinders • A subject bibliography designed to lead the user through the process of researching a specific topic

  23. Basic Retrieval ToolsIndex • Provide access to the analyzed contents of bibliographic entries • Articles in a journal • Short stories in a collection • Papers in a conference proceedings • Purpose of index • Identify and locate relevant information • Indicate relationship within concepts • Group together information on subjects • Direct user seeking information under chosen term • In printed or machine readable form (CD-ROM) or online

  24. Basic Retrieval ToolsAbstract • Concise condensations of the significant of a document, presenting its objectives, scope and major findings • Functions of Abstract • Identify basic contents of a document • Determine its relevance to users interest • Decide necessary/unnecessary to read the whole document • Avoid duplication of effort • Access to foreign publications • Current awareness services

  25. Types of Abstract • Indicative • Short, one or two sentences supplementing the title • merely indicate the type of document, the principle subjects covered, and the way the facts are treated • Informative • Normally 100-250 words but can extent to more than 500 words • Presents as much as possible the quantitative and/or qualitative information contained in the document • Includes a note of the results and conclusion of the document • Critical • Review of the document with comments and evaluation of the information

  26. Basic Retrieval ToolsFinding Aid/Inventory • Long description of archival collection • Produce to establish physical and/or intellectual control over archival materials • Provide detailed descriptions of individual items (name, title, subjects access points, etc.)

  27. Basic Retrieval ToolsRegister/Accession log • Primary control tools for museum • Function like a catalog with additional access points • Registration process is like cataloging process, registrar identify the donor, any association involved, does it need insurance, etc. • Identification number is assigned

  28. Basic Retrieval ToolsBibliographical Database and Utilities • Services provided in term of database catalog-type records • Started early 70s to support library technical service operations • 4 major bibliographic utilities • OCLC [Online Computer Library Centre] • Largest and most comprehensive • RLIN [Research Libraries Network] • Especially important for special collections • WLN [Western Library Network] • Serves Western North America, software used in Australia, Canada, etc. • ISM/LIS [Information System Management/Libraries Information Services] • Serves Canada and few customers in the Northeastern United States

  29. Basic Retrieval ToolsBibliographical Database and Utilities • Maintained huge database that are essentially online catalogs • Records contain 2 kind of information • Descriptive cataloging and classification data • Information for libraries that have added specific items for their collection • Now customers gain access through the internet

  30. Important to know what you are seeking • Cited articles • Consult a bibliography • Library items • Search a catalog • Published articles • Search a bibliographic database • Archived items • Use archival finding aid • “Published” webpage • Search webpage database