How come you said that?. Questioning and rigor in the classroom August 2013. Thoughts in the participants minds. I don’t think I can sit here for this whole time . I wonder if I can get the real estate license by January?
Questioning and rigor in the classroom August 2013
Thoughts in the participants minds I don’t think I can sit here for this whole time. I wonder if I can get the real estate license by January? If my brother-in-law can drive a truck, I can drive a truck, oil field job here I come If I were in my classroom I could be making a really cool bulletin board display of anti-bullying techniques which would stop it and I would get an award and they would make me an assistant principal and I wouldn’t have to ever go to in-service again, I could just drink in my office. Retirement, retirement, I have 12 years in, that means 18 more years, that would be 2031. They will be landing on Mars before I can quit. Oh, I think I am going to be very, very ill.
Something to start your year off Kim Ki-hoon earns $4 million a year in South Korea, where he is known as a rock-star teacher—a combination of words not typically heard in the rest of the world. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324635904578639780253571520.html South Korea has a 93% graduation rate 15 year olds rank 2nd in reading in the world(Shanghai is 1st) South Korea has more tutors than teachers 3 out of every 4 South Korean students utilize private tutoring
What does he do? Viewed up close, this shadow system is both exciting and troubling. It promotes striving and innovation among students and teachers alike, and it has helped South Korea become an academic superpower. The Korean private market has reduced education to the one in-school variable that matters most: the teacher. They don't need to be certified. They don't have benefits or even a guaranteed base salary; their pay is based on their performance, and most of them work long hours and earn less than public school teachers.
What do I need to know from this? “No country has all the answers. But in an information-driven global economy, a few truths are becoming universal: Children need to know how to think critically in math, reading and science; they must be driven; and they must learn how to adapt, since they will be doing it all their lives. These demands require that schools change, too—or the free market may do it for them.”
A few random thoughts Learners are only going to learn what they are willing to learn and teachers are only going to teach what they want to Learners will never learn to think critically or creatively unless they are taught or circumstances intervene and they learn it on their own. Cautionary note here: Learning on your own is wonderful but can be both expensive and painful By asking questions which require learners to interact with the content on different levels provides an opportunity for students to practice critical thinking in a relatively protected environment
What does a critical thinker do? Ask pertinent questions. Assess statements and arguments. Are able to admit a lack of understanding or information. Have a sense of curiosity. Are interested in finding new solutions. Are able to clearly define a set of criteria for analyzing ideas. Are willing to examine beliefs, assumptions, and opinions and weigh them against facts. Listen carefully to others and are able to give feedback. Suspend judgment until all facts have bee gathered and considered. Look for evidence to support assumptions and beliefs. Are able to adjust opinions when new facts are found. Look for proof. Examine problems closely.
What are we going to do? Examine questioning Provide a structure for questioning Develop a plan for advanced questioning Provide a model to use Examine combining questioning with higher order thinking Practice
What do questions address? Convergent—focuses on a single right answer or acceptable answers-may be influenced by facts/details acceptable or by socially acceptable responses Divergent—addresses a wide range of answers—many may be correct or acceptable—may require creativity or many different solutions Evaluative— judgement based questions Combination—blends of the above P
The Basics Cognitive Domain-moves from simple to complex Knowledge Dimensions-moves from concrete to abstract Details Concepts Procedural Metacognitive Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create Sample stems Teacher Understand the language Student
Bloom’s applied to critical thinking Knowledge - what we experience, observe, intuit, and research. Comprehension - how well we internalize, recall, and are able to connect with other information Inference - making conjectures or educated guesses about what we do not have adequate data based on what we do know. Application - how well we can put what we know to use. Analysis - how well we can see parts/sub-parts; how components work together; what consequences are or are likely to be; and detecting needed procedures/limits/costs. Synthesis - detecting and working with an amalgamation of ideas, substance, or events. Evaluation - rendering judgments about what we know and do. Possible question stems
Questioning Level One—Questions can be answered explicitly by information found in the text or in other resources Level Two—Questions can be answered implicitly, requiring interpretation and analysis of parts of the text Level Three—Questions are open-ended and go beyond the text and are designed to provoke discussion In your groups write down two examples of each level, any grade level and content
A Plan…sort of Write it down I hate to write it down—I know you do, I don’t care Put down the basic questions you need to ask—Those that are essential to the understanding of the content Put down answers you are willing to accept Develop re-direct questions e.g. When you get a particular answer where will you go next? Develop some advanced questions Sample French and Indian Wars
Basic-Level One Questions Who What When Where How Convergent kinds of questions—Basically one kind of answer expected
Level Two Questions Under what conditions How did it occur What occurred just before/just after In what ways What are alternatives to When you compare the two what do you find How would you address the dichotomy between What was the rationale for Describe the range of possibilities of
A Plan…sort of Plan and write out the questions to be used in a lesson. How many are lower cognitive questions? Higher cognitive questions? Is the percentage appropriate for the age and ability level of your students? Anticipate possible student responses, especially partially correct or incorrect ones. How will you probe for further information or redirect? Ask a colleague to observe a lesson, paying particular attention to the types of questions and student responses.
Using Frames to frame a question Frames can be used to create different levels for the same material Frames can be used to line up different types of questions (probe, essential, divergent thinking), or to plan an activity
Level Three-Beyond the facts, open ended, evaluation (B) creating (B) Level Two-Can be answered implicitly by information requires analysis, interpretation-Analysis (B) Level One- can be answered explicitly from information found in text What details are important? What special language is involved? Can you identify any patterns? Does this represent a trend? What do I know about this? What do I need to know? What rules are at work here? Are there ethical issues involved? Theme-Concept-Topic-Idea-Content How does the passage of time affect this topic? Are there opposing points of view? How is this connected to other disciplines?
To show that you know what significant means Name a significant film, tv program or web Site and explain why it is significant. Investigate the Career Basic info Who-when- Where-what-How I/d the significant contri- butions Was there a turning point in their career? I/D Why should they be remem- bered?(rationale) Prioritize the Top 10 most Significant people. Justify your response What does “significant” mean? Significant people in Texas history Create at least eight different classifications for “significant contributions” Order them from most to least important
Name the characters in the story. What was the location? In what time period did it take place? What clues did you find to support your answers? What was the first clue that the mayor did not like dogs or people who weren’t born in the town? List the main characters and their characteristics. What made each of them unique? What was the mood of the story and how was that mood communicated? What things did Doc do that made you think he believed De Leon about the four Horsemen at the gate? Summarize the story What patterns of behavior didyou see with each char- acter? Identify the behaviors that let you predict what each would do the final night at the dance hall. What can you infer about the relationship between Doc and de Leon when the old man says, “When I die, I wanna come back as your dog .” Doc mentions to de Leon trends he sees in the paper that made him think that
Practice, Practice, Practice Draw a frames sheet on some piece of paper that you have In the center block place a concept, theme, topic, or idea you are going to teach in the first six weeks Ask three Level One questions—Questions that deal primarily with the content you would expect to find in the text or resource material that you use Ask four Level Two questions—questions which require the learner to combine the basic information and analyze, create or evaluate the content Ask two Level Three questions—questions which require the student to generate a creative answer and to produce a response which goes beyond the content Use any resource available
Questioning Hints The set-up-What I am looking for here is a name, a date, an event The Think about it-question then 45 seconds to discuss and think about it The Look it up—Use any resource available The string—There is a question available, answer it while I’m checking roll
FEEDBACK: REDIRECTING, PROBING, AND RESPONDING Re-direct- (You got that wrong, Hotspur) Let me ask this in a different way. The Probe ( as they say in Alien Movies) Tell me more, probably not as good as, I want you to expand on the first idea that you had You said XXXX, was that always the case? Responding- I like what you said, I need more details.
Show me how to do this Take learners step by step through the content, let them see you think In the following exercise make note of the questions asked of the learners and note how they set up a pathway for learning. The questions not only directs the activity but serves as a model for future thinking activities.
Questions about inference Task is defined You are to write a paper about emigration, what facts do you have? Facts are provided This is practice Examine the data and determine questions about it Inference is defined-draw a conclusion or deduct-find evidence What inference can be drawn from the questions you asked—Who are these people? Evidence-further questions-insights into this historical period (metacognitive)
Just a note: The Oath of Supremacy required any person taking public or church office in England to swear allegiance to the monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Failure to do so was to be treated as treasonable. The Oath of Supremacy was originally imposed by King Henry VIII of England through the Act of Supremacy 1534, but repealed by his daughter, Queen Mary I of England and reinstated under Mary's half-sister, Queen Elizabeth I of England under the Act of Supremacy 1559. The Oath was later extended to include Members of Parliament and people studying at universities.