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RISE OF MASS DEMOCRACY. Chapter 13. Politics Of The People. By the 1820s democracy of all the people was no longer considered something to be feared. People wanted to be more involved Asset to be seen as man of the people, and not of the elite.

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  2. Politics Of The People • By the 1820s democracy of all the people was no longer considered something to be feared. • People wanted to be more involved • Asset to be seen as man of the people, and not of the elite. • Politicians had to find a way to appeal to the common man

  3. Jacksonian Democracy • Jacksonian Democracy--politics of the masses and for the masses. • Logical extension of Jeffersonian Democracy. • Jefferson—people should be governed as little as possible. • Jackson—governing should be done directly by the people. • Jackson believed in small government although believed in strong President. • Catalyst: universal white male suffrage.

  4. Voting Requirements in the Early 1800s

  5. Factors Leading To The New Democracy • Outgrowth of egalitarian republican ideals of the revolution • Growth of market economy • Panic of 1819 • Missouri Comprise of 1820 • Consequences: • Voter turnout much higher • Campaigning much more aggressive and overt • Nominating conventions replaced Congressional Caucus so that presidential candidates are selected more democratically

  6. Election of 1824 • Jackson is very popular war hero and runs as candidate of the west and common man. • Has three opponents: • John Quincy Adams--Monroe’s Sec. of State. Candidate of Easterners and establishment. • Henry Clay -Also a westerner and natural regional rival of Jackson. But much different view of role of national government. • William Crawford--Southerner

  7. Election of 1824 • All four Democratic-Republicans • But, clear factions • Jackson: benefit common man; limited national government. • Clay and Adams: strong activist federal government. • Federalists-light • Calhoun VP on both Adams and Jackson tickets.

  8. Electoral College Deadlock • Jackson wins the most popular votes (42%) and electoral votes, but does not get a majority of the electoral votes. • Thus, House must choose between the top three. • Clay finished fourth and is eliminated. • Crawford has a stroke • Thus, between Adams and Jackson

  9. Corrupt Bargain? • Why does Clay have the power to influence the vote? • Why does Clay back Adams? • Adams wins the presidency; Clay becomes Sec. of State. • Jacksons’ supporters scream “corrupt bargain”

  10. A“Corrupt Bargain?”

  11. John Quincy Adams • Austere. • Short, bald, stiff and frosty. Loner. • Very successful Sec. of State, but was not well suited to the presidency. • How he won made things worse • Was first minority President • He refused to play the spoils game; made supporters grumpy

  12. Adams’ Unpopular Policies • Adams Nationalistic policies went against the tide of opinion. • Advocated national roads, canals, universities, observatories • South objected. Why? • West objected. Why? • Land policies also a bust with West • Tried to protect Indians in Georgia.

  13. Going “Whole Hog” For Jackson In 1828 • Jackson v. Adams, again. • Democratic-Republican party splits into two. • National Republicans, led by Adams. • Policies? • Democratic-Republicans, led by Jackson. Become the Democrats. • Policies?

  14. 1828 Election Results • Nasty campaign full of mud-slinging. • Jackson wins 178-83 in the electoral college. Adams polls only 44%. • Jackson carries the South and West and the Eastern laborers. • Adams carries New England and the moneyed class.

  15. Jackson InaugurationFirst Kegger in the White House?

  16. Jacksonian Revolution • Election of 1828 one of most important in US history. • Marks a major change in American Politics. • Why was it a revolution?

  17. The Center of Population in theCountry Moves WEST

  18. The Advent Of “Old Hickory” Jackson • Jackson personified the new west. He was individualistic, rugged, versatile and a war hero. • Personal History • Jackson’s Firsts: • First president from the west • First to be nominated at a formal convention • First President without a college education (except Washington) • First President who not part of the educated elite that was at the heart of the revolution and the Constitution.

  19. Jackson’s Philosophy • Suspicious of the federal government because it was remote from the people; • Believed in limited Fed. government (See Jefferson) • Hostile to the active federal econ. role of American System; National Bank • Strong believer in the Union; • opposed nullification and those who did not believe that federal power was supreme. (See Hamilton) • Very strong president. Insisted on prompt and loyal support from his subordinates. • He was the great vetoer Vetoed more bills than predecessors combined.

  20. The Spoils System • Jackson’s attitude toward bureaucracy and spoils system. • During Jackson’s 8 years only about 20% of civil servants were dismissed, but sets a bad precedent. • Problems with spoils system

  21. Tariff of Abomination • New England and East like Tariffs. Reduces competition. • South and West hate tariffs. • Economic concerns • Political/Sectional concern • Jackson’s supporters try to put JQ Adams in political trap by pushing for a very high tariff. • Plan backfires, and tariff is passed. • South is outraged at Adams, and calls it “Tariff of Abomination”

  22. South Carolina Exposition and Nullification • Calhoun secretly writes, “The South Carolina Exposition.” • What is his thesis? • Compact theory v. Nationalist theory.

  23. “Nullies” In South Carolina • Tariff of 1832 • South Carolina votes to nullify the tariff. • Threatens to secede • Jackson’s reaction. • Jackson issues proclamation against nullification and raises an army to march on SC • Things at a dangerous crisis point.

  24. Nullification Crisis • Henry Clay is motivated to find a compromise. Why? • Tariff Bill of 1833 • As a face-saving device, Congress passes the force bill. • South Carolina happy for this out. Why? • SC repeals nullification.

  25. Transplanting The Tribes Trail of Tears

  26. Legal status of Indians Attitudes of Americans toward Indians Five Civilized tribes in South East Jackson’s attitude toward Indians Transplanting the Tribes

  27. Indian Removal Act • Indian Removal Act (1830). • “voluntary” removal of Indians from southeast to reservations in Eastern Kansas and Oklahoma. • Forced removal of over 100,000 Indians. • Heaviest blow falls on the Five Civilized Tribes • Theory behind the policy • Trail of Tears • Bureau of Indian Affairs -1836 • Black Hawk Rebellion

  28. Indian Removal

  29. The Bank As A Political Football • Jackson and supporters hated BUS. • Some of Jackson’s allegations were true. • It was hostile to wildcat banks of the west. • It did foreclose on a number of western farms. • It was a mammoth and monopolistic bank. • It was to some extent autocratic and tyrannical. • It did greatly impact economy. • Was corrupt.

  30. Analysis of BUS • Many good things about the Bank. • Imposed restraint on wildcat banks. • It reduced bank failures How? • It provided a national paper currency • It promoted economic expansion. • Allowed nations funds to be effectively recycled back into the economy.

  31. Clay’s Scheme • Clay used the Bank issue to try to hurt Jackson politically • Clay’s Scheme? • Why does it backfire? • Clay gets recharter bill passed. • Jackson vetoes and issues a scathing veto message • Basis for veto • Significance of veto

  32. The Bank As A Political Football • Jackson’s veto is very popular with rural, South and West. • Increases Jackson’s popularity with his core constituency. • Antagonizes nationalists • BUS is now one prime issues in the election of 1832.

  33. Election of 1832 • Jackson (Dem.-Rep.) v. Clay (National Republicans) • First election with a third party. • Anti-Masonic Party • First election with national nominating conventions • Clay seems to have a huge advantage. Why? • But, Jackson wins easily. Why?

  34. 1832 Election Results

  35. Badgering Biddle’s Bank • Jackson believed he had a mandate to end the BUS when its charter expired in 1836. • Jackson decides to weaken it before issue of recharter comes up. Why? • Jackson’s Plan • Pet Banks • Biddle’s Response? • Consequences? • Specie Circular Nicholas Biddle

  36. The Birth Of The Whigs • Whig Party emerges in 1834. Cause? • Clay and Calhoun. • Democratic-Republicans now “Democrats.” • Primary common bond is opposition to Jackson. • Dubbed an Organized incompatibility: • Elements of Whig Party?

  37. Election of 1836 • In 1836 Whigs run several regional candidates. • Why? • What is their strategy? • Jackson hand-picks Van Buren as his successor and engineers his nomination. • Van Buren won only a narrow majority of the popular vote, but won electoral vote, 170-124.

  38. Woes for Van Buren • Skilled politician and very bright. • Inherited lots of political problems. • Party peeved at Jackson rammed through his nomination • Inherits all Jackson’s enemies, but not Jackson’s support from common man. • Jackson’s economic policies (specie circular) caused economic downturn. • Problems with Canada and Texas.

  39. Depression And Independent Treasury • Panic of 1837. • Causes? • Effects? • Whigs propose solutions involving government action, but Van Buren vetoes. Why? • Van Buren’s Plan: Independent Treasury Bill (Divorce Bill) • Details? • Problems with it?

  40. American Settlement in Texas • 1823 Mexico grants a huge tract of land to Stephan Austin. • Mexico’s conditions on settlers • Why does Mexico open land to Americans? • Americans come, but largely ignore the two conditions. “Moses” Austin

  41. American Settlement in Texas • 1835, 30,000 Americans in Texas. • Davy Crockett, Sam Bowie and Sam Houston. • Tension between Mexico and Texans • Slavery issue • Mexico’s policies to regain control • Santa Anna Sam Houston. First Governor of Texas; “Big Drunk”

  42. Texas Revolution • Early 1836, Texas declares its independence with Sam Houston as commander in chief. • Santa Anna attacks the Alamo • Goliad • Santa Anna defeated at San Jacinto • Santa Anna captured and forced to sign treaty under duress. Rio Grande • Santa Anna quickly repudiated the treaty, but doesn’t have power to attack again.

  43. Texas an International Derelict • Texas could not have won its Independence without US help. Unofficial help, but also very tangible. Both men and supplies. • This increased Mexico-US tensions. • Texas causes political tension in US. Why?

  44. Texas an International Derelict • Texas wanted diplomatic recognition from US. • Jackson was reluctant to recognize Texas as an independent republic. • Why? • On last day of office he does recognize Texas. • Texans want to be part of the US and request annexation. • Why was annexation by US politically complicated?

  45. Election of 1840 • Van Buren nominated by the Dems in 1840; no strong alternative. • Whigs passed over Clay and Webster and nom. William Henry Harrison. Why? • John Tyler of Va. is his VP • Harrison platform vague. • Why Whigs win

  46. The Two Party System Emerges • Two party system began to reemerge under Jackson and fully reemerged in the election of 1840 with the Whigs. • Both parties were big-tent parties containing diverse elements • Were also diverse geographically, and their presence helped retard the development of purely sectional parties

  47. Democrats: States rights federal restraint in social and economic affairs Champion of individual and working class. Distrusted privileged class’ attempts to usurp government Strong in South and West Opposed high tariffs as benefiting eastern business at expense of farmer. Whigs: (Majority) willing to use government to realize their objectives argued against using class differences to appeal to self interest of one class over another. Believed in strong gov’t initiative such as the BUS, tariffs, internal improvements, public schools and moral reform, such as slavery. Whigs v. Democrats

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