Nouns • Definition: Person, place, or thing • Nouns can be: • Concrete or abstract • Singular, plural, or possessive • Common or proper
Concrete or Abstract Concrete: A physical person, place, or thing (ex. Jonah, West Town Mall, desk) Abstract: An idea or quality(ex. Happiness, peace, speed) If you can touch it, it is a concrete noun.
Concrete or Abstract Practice Directions: Label each word below a concrete noun or abstract noun. Then, write a sentence with each. Example A: costume Answer: concrete noun / I wore a costume for Halloween. 1. satisfaction- ___________________________ 2. school- _______________________________ 3. baby- ________________________________ 4. justice- _______________________________ 5. dream- _______________________________ 6. storm- _______________________________
Singular, Plural, Possessive Nouns have different forms. Singular: one noun (Ex: pencil, mess, Mike) Plural: more than one (Ex: pencils, messes, Mikes) Possessive: shows possession or ownership. (Ex: Mike’s, pencil’s, mess’s) *possession is shown with an apostrophe
Common and Proper Common Noun: a general person, place, or thing. (ex. doctor, store, book) Proper Noun: a specific person, place, thing, or brand name. (ex. Doctor Phil, Target, Lord of the Flies)
Noun Practice Take out a piece of paper. A noun will be displayed. You will write whether it is… Singular, plural, or possessive Concrete or abstract Common or proper Example schools = plural, concrete, common noun
1 dogs 2 Big Mac
3 Tyler’s 4 glasses
5 beauty 6 Xbox One
7 crime 8 Wednesday’s
9 shirts 10 politness
The What & Why of Pronouns • Root (Latin pro, for; nomen, noun) = a word that replaces a noun • To avoid repetition • Antecedent= noun replaced (ante, before; cedo, go) • Juan is my cousin. He (Juan) is in your English class. • Juan = antecedent. He = pronoun.
7 KINDS OF PRONOUNS • PERSONAL = refers to persons, he, she • REFLEXIVE = refers back to the subject • INTENSIVE = emphasizes the subject • DEMONSTRATIVE = points to with gesture • INDEFINITE = unsure, some, few • INTERROGATIVE = question words, who • RELATIVE = relates 2 sentences (which)
REFERS TO Here’s the Idea The word that a pronoun refers to is called its antecedent. Ramon visited Death Valley, and he was impressed.
Personal Pronouns A pronoun is a word that takes the place of one or more nouns. The most frequently used pronouns are called personal pronouns. They refer to people or things.
Pronouns such as we, I, he, them and it are calledpersonal pronouns. Personal pronouns have a variety of forms to indicate different persons, numbers, and cases.
There are first-person, second-person, and third-person personal pronouns, each having both singular and plural forms.
Singular Plural FIRST PERSON FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON THIRD PERSON I went out. We left early. You left too. You are leaving. He came by bus. They came by car.
Here’s the Idea Each personal pronoun forms three cases: subject, object, and possessive.
Subject Pronouns A subject pronoun is used as the subject of a sentence. She is my best friend. It is my dog. Does he know the answer? You and I will meet later.
Object Pronouns An object pronoun is used as the direct/indirect object or the object of a preposition. Give the book to me. The teacher gave her a reprimand. I will tell you a story. Susan read it to them.
When in a pair (Susan and I) Always take the pronoun OUT of the pair to see which pronoun is the correct one to use. EXAMPLES: Richard and (I or me) recited the story. Jennifer helped Richard and (I or me). Read sentence without the words that the pronoun is paired with to see what works (word in white).
List of Personal Pronouns Singular Plural I we you you he, she, it they Subject Pronouns me us you you him, her, it them Object Pronouns
ACTIVITY 1 • Write sentences in your groups using each of the subject pronouns. Underline each subject pronoun. • Write sentences using each of the object pronouns. Circle each object pronoun. Total of 16 pronouns. You can combine subject and object pronouns in you sentences.
PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS Read the following sentences. Can you tell to whom the word She refers? Arachne competes with Athena.She weaves skillfully. The sentence is not clear because the word She could refer to either Arachne or Athena. Sometimes you must repeat a noun or rewrite the sentence. Arachne competes with Athena. Athena weaves skillfully.
PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS The noun or group of words that a pronoun refers to is called its antecedent. When you use a pronoun, you should be sure that it refers to its antecedent clearly. Be especially careful when you use the pronoun they. Read the following sentence. They have several books about Greek myths at the library. Continue
PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS The meaning of Theyis unclear. The sentence can be improved by rewriting it in the following manner. Several books about myths are available at the library.
PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS When using pronouns, you must also make sure that they agree with their antecedents in number (singular or plural) and gender. The gender of a noun may be masculine (male), feminine (female), or neuter (referring to things). Notice how the pronouns on the next slide agree with their antecedents. Continue
Personal pronouns have three gender forms: • masculine he, his, him • feminine she, her, hers • neuter it, its
FEMININE his Agatha Christie hero her MASCULINE Agatha Christie sets many of her stories in England. The hero has to use all his wits to solve the crime.
PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS 1. The myth of Arachne is amusing. I enjoyedit. 2. The bystanders see Athena.They watchherat the loom. In the first sentence, myth is the antecedent of the pronoun it. In the second sentence, bystanders is the antecedent of They, and Athena is the antecedent of her.
ACTIVITY 2 Directions: Read each sentence below. Write each pronoun and label it singular or plural. Example A‐ He is one of the top students in the class because he studies hard. He‐ singular 1. You are late for school, so get your backpack and hurry up! ____________________________________ 2. The teacher told her to complete her assignment before leaving class. ____________________________________ 3. After school, they will go to the movies with their friends. ____________________________________ 4. I want to do well in school so that I am prepared for my future career. ____________________________________ 5. Tell him to wait outside so his mom can pick him up after school. ____________________________________ 6. The teacher told me that I couldn’t go to the restroom during class time. ____________________________________ 7. They are the best class in the entire school because they listen to their teacher and parents. ____________________________________ A pronoun is a word that may take the place of one or more nouns.
Using Pronouns Correctly Subject pronouns are used in compound subjects, and object pronouns are used in compound objects. He and Carmen wrote a report on the subject. (Not Him and Carmen) Tell John and me about Hercules.(Not John and I) Continue
Using Pronouns Correctly A preposition takes an object, just as many verbs do. The object of a preposition can be simple or compound. In either case, use an object pronoun as the object of the preposition. Lee read a famous myth to me. Lee read a famous Roman myth to John and me. Continue
Using Pronouns Correctly If you are not sure of which form of the pronoun to use, say the sentence aloud with only the pronoun as the subject or the object. Your ear will tell you which form is correct. Whenever the pronoun I is part of a compound subject, it should always be placed after the other parts of the subject. Similarly, when the pronoun me is part of a compound object, it should go after the other parts of the object. Continue
Using Pronouns Correctly Lee and I read some ancient Roman myths. (Not I and Lee) Mythology interests Lee and me. (Not me and Lee). Continue
Continue Using Pronouns Correctly In formal writingand speech use a subject pronoun after a linking verb. The writer of this report wasshe. It isI.
Continue Possessive Pronouns A possessive pronoun is a pronoun that shows who or what has something. A possessive pronoun may take the place of a possessive noun. Read the following sentences. Notice the possessive nouns and the possessive pronouns that replace them.
Continue Possessive Pronouns Homer’s story is famous. His story is famous. This story is Homer’s. This story is his. Possessive nouns are in green. Possessive pronouns are in red.
Singular Plural Used before nouns my your his, her, its our your their Used alone mine yours his, hers, its ours yours theirs Continue Possessive Pronouns Possessive pronouns have two forms. One form is used before a noun. The other form is used alone.
Possessive Pronouns Possessive pronouns are not written with apostrophes. The pronoun its, for example, shows possession. The word it’s, on the other hand, is a contraction of it is. Read the following sentences. Notice the meaning of the words in red type. Its central character is Odysseus. (possessive pronoun) It’sabout the adventures of Odysseus. (contraction of It is)
Activity 4 Directions: In the items that follow, choose the option that corrects an error in the underlined portion(s). If no error exists, choose “No change is necessary.” Show me what you know.
Item 1 • Not only my brothers but also Mom loves to drench their omelets in ketchup. • his • her • his and her • No change is necessary. • Not only my brothers but also Mom loves to drench their omelets in ketchup. • his • her • his and her • No change is necessary. • Not only my brothers but also Mom loves to drench their omelets in ketchup. • his • her • his and her • No change is necessary.