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Progesterone Audit

Progesterone Audit

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Progesterone Audit

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  1. Progesterone Audit Shilpa Joshi SpR Chemical Pathology Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust

  2. Background It was noticed by the staff in Clinical Chemistry at Royal Devon and Exeter Foundation Trust, that there was increase in serum progesterone requests over the last couple of years Many had either very little or no clinical details provided

  3. At around the same time, The Royal College of Pathologists published in their July 2011 Bulletin: ‘Audit of progesterone requesting in pregnancy of unknown location, June 2009’ carried out at Kingston Hospital NHS Trust

  4. That audit evaluated the nature of requests for progesterone (apart from fertility invsg.) • They developed local guidance for requesting progesterone in PUL, wherein progesterone was only needed where serum β-HCG was not declining as expected • They developed a software rule to block requests from in- patient admissions/ A&E , • which did not have a β-HCG request on the same patients in the past 20 days

  5. A re audit by the same department in February 2011 (published in the same bulletin) showed a remarkable reduction of 93% in serum progesterone tests being analysed • They demonstrated an annual cost saving of £830 on progesterone • As a result we decided to audit our local progesterone requesting pattern

  6. Local RDE protocol for management of PUL • Progesterone (nmol/L) β-HCG (IU/L) <16 >25 Spontaneous resolving pregnancy, check β- HCG in 7 days 16-60 >25 Miscarriage/Ectopic with moderate intervention, β-HCG in 2 days. >60 <1000 Normal intrauterine pregnancy, repeat scan β-HCG >1000 >60 >1000 Ectopic pregnancy with high risk requiring intervention, scan same day

  7. Role of placenta and progesterone in early pregnancy Corpus Luteum (Ovaries) secrete Progesterone maintains foetal viability Foetus + Placenta signal

  8. Aim To examine and compare serum progesterone requests received by the Department of Clinical Chemistry, RDE, in months February and March in the years 2008 and 2011 To be in a position to draft and publish some local guidelines for requesting serum progesterone.

  9. Method Encore data extraction software was used to obtain serum progesterone requests in the months Feb-March in the years 2008 and 2011 Only those progesterones which had an accompanying β-HCG were included in the audit ( serum progesterones requested for investigation/ monitoring of infertility were not included)

  10. Number of progesterones requested in two months in 2008 and 2011

  11. In 2008 68X1=68 13X2=26 2X3= 6 83 women = 100 requests in 2 months In 2011 139X1=139 15X2=30 2X3=6 156 women = 175 requests in 2 months (A progesterone was erroneously added to a male patient’s test profile by the laboratory which was not included in the current audit)

  12. Distribution of progesterone requests in ( 83+156) females according to age groups in Feb-March 2008 &2011 • The women ranged from ages 16-46 years in 2008 and 15-44 years in 2011.

  13. Requests in 2008 and 2011 stratified according to departments

  14. A&E requests in 2008 & 2011

  15. Clinical reasons for requesting serum progesterone in 83 women in Feb-March 2008 and 156 women in Feb-Mar 2011

  16. Clinical scenarios where the local RDE protocol for management of PULcan be applied

  17. Classification of the above cases according to the local RDE protocol for management of PUL ?Ectopic / PUL in 2008/ 2011 33 cases (2008) + 52 cases (2011) had a single progesterone 11cases (2008) + 15 cases (2011) had more than one progesterone Baseline progesterone + β-HCG Prog. β-HCG Prog. β-HCG <16 >25 Spont. resolving pregnancy, β- HCG in 7 days 16-60 >25 Miscarriage/Ectopic with moderate intervention, β-HCG in 2 days. 6 (2008) + 3 (2011) 4 (2008) + 8 (2011) Prog. β-HCG Prog. β-HCG >60 <1000 Normal intrauterine pregnancy, repeat scan >60 >1000 Ectopic pregnancy with high risk β- HCG >1000 requiring intervention, scan same day 1 (2011) 1 (2008) + 3 (2011)

  18. Progesterone (nmol/L) β-HCG (IU/L) <16 >25 Spontaneous resolving pregnancy, check β- HCG in 7 days • 6 cases (2008) of which 4 women miscarried, 2 had decreasing β- HCG with unknown outcomes • 3 cases (2011) of which 1 woman was diagnosed with ectopic, 2 had decreasing β-HCG with unknown outcomes

  19. Progesterone (nmol/L) β-HCG (IU/L) 16-60 >25 Miscarriage/Ectopic with moderate intervention, β-HCG in 2 days • 4 cases (2008) of which 2 women went to full term, 2 had decreasing β- HCG with unknown outcomes • 8 cases (2011) of which 2 women went to full term, 1 had ectopic, 2 miscarried, 3 had decreasing β-HCG with unknown outcomes

  20. Progesterone (nmol/L) β-HCG (IU/L) >60 <1000 Normal intrauterine pregnancy, repeat scan β-HCG >1000 • 1 case (2011) β-HCG not doubling, Ectopic

  21. Progesterone (nmol/L) β-HCG (IU/L) >60 >1000 Ectopic pregnancy with high risk requiring intervention, scan same day • 1 case (2008) which went on to have a full term pregnancy • 3 cases (2011) of which 1 had full term pregnancy, whilst the other 2 miscarried,

  22. Clinical reasons (excluding investigation for infertility/ threatened miscarriage) for analysing progesterones, which do not fulfil the local PUL algorithm

  23. Conclusions 2008/2011 The audit evaluated a total of 100 serum progesterone tests in Feb-March 2008 and 175 in Feb-March 2011 239 different patients in months of Feb-March 2008 & 2011 had a total of 275 progesterone tests

  24. There was increase in progesterone requests by 75% in 2011 compared to 2008 The major requestor was OBGYN 83/100 (83%) in 2008 and 134/ 175 (76.5%) in 2011 The main reasons for requesting the test was ? Ectopic pregnancy and ? Miscarriage / PV bleeding in pregnancy

  25. Perhaps the algorithm for PUL is being utilised indiscriminately in other clinical scenarios, 32.5% (2008) , 51.9% (2011) • In 2008, 10 cases (4 OBGYN+5 GP+1 UNK) had a progesterone requested even though the baseline β-HCG <1. Out these 7 cases were for querying ectopic pregnancy • In 2011, 21 cases ( 8GP + 2A&E + 11 OBGYN ) had a serum progesterone even though baseline β-HCG demonstrated that the patients were not pregnant • A&E continues to order baseline β-HCG +Progesterone in high proportions

  26. Limitations of the audit It was tricky to evaluate the suitability of the test requests exclusively on the basis of the clinical details available on PTH, which were often insufficient The level of seniority of medical staff requesting progesterones could not be verified , as samples were booked under the consultant leading the team

  27. Request forms from A&E have A&E consultant names printed on the forms, therefore, samples from A&E may have been requested by other departments • Also, in cases where progesterone/ β-HCG added at a later time, it was difficult to know the team requesting these tests as samples were booked under A&E • Currently there is no clear guidance regarding the clinical conditions meriting a serum progesterone

  28. Recommendations Liaise with OBGYN to encourage use of the PUL algorithm only in those conditions which fit the criteria, and, discourage use in other clinical scenarios Serum progesterone to be not analysed in situations where no clinical/ irrelevant clinical details provided Re audit data probably in a year

  29. References The management of early pregnancy loss (green-top guideline no.25, October 2006): Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologist Audit of progesterone requesting in pregnancy of unknown location, June 2009: The Royal College of Pathologist Bulletin, July 2011, pg 200-203 Expectant management of ectopic pregnancy (revised Feb2010), Guidelines by Child and Women’s Health, Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Trust Donna Day Baird, Clarice R. Weinberg, D. Robert McConnaughey, and Allen J. Wilcox Rescue of the Corpus Luteum in Human Pregnancy Biol Reprod February 2003 68 (2) 448-456

  30. Acknowledgement Dr O’Connor/ Dr Salzmann

  31. Thank you