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Networking with TCP/IP and the Application Layers PowerPoint Presentation
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Networking with TCP/IP and the Application Layers

Networking with TCP/IP and the Application Layers

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Networking with TCP/IP and the Application Layers

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  1. Networking with TCP/IP and the Application Layers

  2. Sockets and Ports • Socket • Logical address assigned to a specific process running on a host computer • The socket’s address combines the host computer’s IP address with the port numberassociated with a process • Port numbers in the range of 0 to 1023 are called well-known ports

  3. Sockets and Ports

  4. Sockets and Ports

  5. Host Names and Domain Name System (DNS) • Host name • Symbolic name that describes a TCP/IP device • Domain • Group of computers that belong to the same organization and have part of their IP addresses in common

  6. Domain Names • Symbolic name that identifies an organization • Top-level domains (TLDs) • Highest-level category used to distinguish domain names • A TLD is known as the domain suffix

  7. Domain Names

  8. Host Files • Text file that associates TCP/IP host names with IP addresses • Alias • Nickname for a node’s host name

  9. Domain Name System (DNS) • Hierarchical way of tracking domain names and their addresses, devised in the mid-1980s

  10. Domain Name System (DNS) • Resolvers • Hosts on the Internet that need to look up domain name information • Name servers • Servers that contain databases of names and their associated IP addresses • Each name server manages a group of device, collectively known as a zone

  11. Configuring DNS

  12. DNS Name Space • Name space • Refers to the actual database of Internet IP addresses and their associated names • Every name server holds a piece of the DNS name space • At the highest level of the hierarchy sit the root servers • Visit: http://www.icann.org/ • And: http://www.newroot.com/root-servers.htm

  13. DNS Name Space • Resource record • Element of a DNS database stored on a name server that contains information about TCP/IP host names and their addresses • Address resource record • Type of resource record that maps the IP address of an Internet-connected device to its domain name

  14. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) • Automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on a network • Reasons for implementing DHCP • Reduce the time and planning spent on IP address management • Reduce the potential for errors in assigning IP addresses • Enable users to move their workstations and printers without having to change their TCP/IP configuration • Make IP addressing transparent for mobile users

  15. DHCP Leasing Process • Lease • Agreement between DHCP server and client on how long the client will borrow a DHCP-assigned IP address

  16. Terminating a DHCP Lease • A DHCP lease may expire based on the period established for it in the server configuration • A DHCP lease may be manually terminated at any time from either the client’s TCP/IP configuration or the server’s DHCP configuration • In some instances, a user must terminate a lease • Release • The act of terminating a DHCP lease

  17. Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) • Provides a means of resolving NetBIOS names with IP addresses • WINS offers several advantages • Guarantees a unique NetBIOS name is used for each computer on a network • Support for DHCP • Better network performance

  18. Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)

  19. Review of TCP/IP Subprotocols • Internet Protocol (IP) • Transport Control Protocol (TCP) • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) • Telnet • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

  20. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) • SMTP • Responsible for moving messages from one e-mail server to another

  21. Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) • Mail storage and manipulation protocol that depends on SMTP’s transport system

  22. Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) • Language that Web clients and servers use to communicate • Forms the backbone of the Web • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) • Language that defines formatting standards for Web documents

  23. Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)

  24. Network Time Protocol (NTP) • Used to synchronize the clocks of a computers on a network • Very simple protocol • Belongs to Application Layer of TCP/IP Model • Depends on UDP

  25. TCP/IP Troubleshooting • Of all network protocols, TCP/IP is most likely to cause problems because it requires the most planning and post-installation configuration • Be aware of the troubleshooting tools and their switches • These troubleshooting utilities can be accessed from the command prompt on a server or client running TCP/IP

  26. Packet Internet Groper (PING) • Troubleshooting utility that can verify TCP/IP is installed, bound to the NIC, configured correctly, and communicating with the network • An echo request is a signal sent out to another computer • An echo reply is the other computer’s response signal • Process of sending this signal back and forth is known as pinging

  27. Netstat • Netstat utility display TCP/IP statistics and details about TCP/IP components and connections on a host

  28. Nbstat • The nbstat utility can provide information about NetBIOS statistics and resolve NetBIOS names to their IP addresses • In other words, if you know the NetBIOS name of a workstation, you can use nbstat to determine its IP address • Nbstat is useful on networks that run Windows-based operating systems and NetBIOS

  29. Nslookup • Allows you to look up the DNS host name of a network node by specifying its IP address, or vice versa

  30. Traceroute • Uses ICMP to trace path from one networked node to another • Also known as tracert on Windows machines

  31. Ipconfig • TCP/IP administration utility for use with Windows NT and Windows 2000 operating systems

  32. Winipcfg • This utility performs the same TCP/IP configuration management as the ipconfig utility, but also applies to Windows 9x and Me operating systems

  33. Winipcfg

  34. Internet Services • World Wide Web (WWW, or Web) • Collection of internetworked servers that share resources and exchange information according to specific protocols and formats • Browser • Software that provides clients with a simple, graphical interface to the Web

  35. World Wide Web • Uniform Resource Locator (URL) • Standard means of identifying every Web page

  36. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • FTP - Manages files transfers between TCP/IP hosts

  37. E-commerce • E-commerce • Means of conducting business over the Web