Enhancing the status of food security in Tanzania: exploring the potential of reducing post-harvest losses
Outline1. Key messages2. Introduction3. Food security: definition and dimensions4. Status of food security in Tanzania5. Post-harvest losses6. Concluding remarks
Key messages • The status of food security has improved in recent years • A significant one third of Tanzanians experience various forms of food insecurity • Reducing post harvest crop loss can potentially enhance food security
Introduction • food insecurity is one of the major unresolved challenges, nationally and internationally • 9.7 percent of the mainland population are below the food poverty line • There is significant regional variation (HBS, 2011/12)
Food security: definition and dimensions • Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. (World Food Summit, 1996) • Dimensions: availability, Accessibility, utilization, and stability
Dimensions of food security • Food availability: The availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports(including food aid). • Food access: Access by individuals to adequate resources (entitlements) for acquiring appropriate foods for a nutritious diet.
Dimensions of food security • Utilization: Utilization of food through adequate diet, clean water, sanitation and health care • Stability: To be food secure, a population, household or individual must have access to adequate food at all times.
Status of Food Security in Tanzania • About one thirds of Tanzanians are food insecure -worry about not having enough food, reduce their food intake, or eat less desired food type (NPS, 2012/13) • Incidences of food insecurity are slighly higher in Dar es Salaam, and rural areas.
Status of Food Security in Tanzania • Food security has improved over time • Number of those who do not experience food shortage has increased from 48% in 2005 to 60% in 2014 (Afrobarometer survey, various rounds)
Enhancing the status of food security • Avenues to improve food security include: -Increasing crop production and farm productivity -Creation of decent jobs in off-farm activities -redistribution of wealth -reducing post harvest crop loss
Post-harvest losses • PHL can occur at any stage along the value chain • Estimates of PHL vary depending on the method of measurement, reference point along the value chain • proportion of households experiencing crop loss had declined in recent years; 20 percent in 2008/09, 11 percent in 2010/11, 7percent in 2012/13 (NPS, wave 3)
Post-harvest losses (cont.) • farmers loose up to 40% of the harvest through PHL (depending on the crop and geographical area) • SokoineUniversity of Agriculture (SUA) estimates of post-harvest losses in Tanzania: paddy 10.7%, sorghum 12.5%, maize 15.5%
Post-harvest losses (cont.) • Kaminski and Christiaensen (2014) estimate on farm and storage PHL for maize to range between 2.9% and 4.4% • APHLIS estimates maize weight loss in Tanzania to be 17 percent when all stages of the supply chain are considered; apart from processing, and consumption or food waste.
Concluding remarks • Improved status of food security in Tanzania • A significant proportion, with varying degree, still experiences some form of food insecurity. • More effort, by state and non-state actors, to further improve the status of food security is needed • Reducing PHL has the potential to enhance status of food security