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Module 21

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Module 21

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  1. Module 21 The Role of Materials

  2. What’s inside • Purpose of materials • Learning support • Producing materials for ESP • Writers or providers of materials • Teacher-generated materials • Learner-generated materials • Material and technology

  3. Purpose of Materials reason Source of Language Implication Implication – use real not invented examples

  4. Four reasons for using materials which seem significant in the ESP context are: • As a source of language • As a learning support • For motivation and stimulation • For reference

  5. Source of language Materials play important role in exposing learners to the language, which implies that the materials need to present real language and the full range that learners require.

  6. 2. Learning Support As a learning support, materials need to e reliable  it should be consistent and to have some recognisable pattern. To enhance learning, materials must involve learners in thinking about and using the language.  the activities need to stimulate cognitive not mechanical processes.

  7. Stimulation and Motivation To stimulate and motivate, materials need to be challenging yet achievable; to offer new ideas and information being grounded in the learner’s experience and knowledge, to encourage fun and creativity

  8. Reference For self-study or reference purposes, materials need to be complete, well laid out and self-explanatory. The learner will want explanations, examples and practice activities that have answer and discussion keys.

  9. Module 22 The Role of Materials

  10. What’s inside • Purpose of materials • Learning support • Producing materials for ESP • Writers or providers of materials • Teacher-generated materials • Learner-generated materials • Material and technology

  11. Producing materials for ESP Six criteria to be applied to the activities created in the materials.(Moore (430, p. 49) • PURPOSEIs the purpose clearlydefined? • TYPE does the exercise type effectively and economically accomplish the purpose

  12. 3. CONTENT 1. is the ratio of language given/ student task economic? 2. Are instructions to students clear. 4. INTEREST Is it interesting 5. AUTHENTICITY Is it meaningful task? 6. DIFFICULTY Does it contain distracting difficulties

  13. Writers or Providers of materials? A good provider of materials will be able to: • Select appropriately from what is available; • Be creative with what is available; • Modify activities to suit learner’s needs; and • Supplement by providing extra activities (and extra input)

  14. Selecting from what is available • Will the materials stimulate and motivate? • To what extent does the material match the stated learning objectives and your learning objectives? • To what extent will the materials support that learning?

  15. Being Creative with what is available. freedom to choose from any material small range of material to choose from Given materials have to be used

  16. Modifying activities to suit learner’s needs. Possible modifications • Select the activities that are central to the core objective. • Replace them with activities which focus on real content • Change the rubric to change the focus or drop the activity. • Add in an activity or two before those given in the material • Ask them what the problem is. Otherwise omit the exercise.

  17. Module 23 The Role of Materials

  18. What’s inside • Purpose of materials • Learning support • Producing materials for ESP • Writers or providers of materials • Teacher-generated materials • Learner-generated materials • Material and technology

  19. Supplementing by providing extra input and activities What to consider: • Matching carrier content to real content • Providing variety • Grading activity level to learning and language level • Presenting the material well

  20. Teacher Generated Material Process for Preparing New Materials Starting point A Starting point A Have some carrier content Need material for specific objective Determine its real content Search for suitable carrier content Match real and carrier content to course framework

  21. Providing variety 1. Variety in micro skills 2. Variety in activity types 3. Variety in interaction

  22. Grading Provide each task or set of exercises at three levels: unsupported / partially supported / fully supported. Activities can be graded according to the complexity of processing (Nunan, 1989)

  23. Presenting the Material Well OBJECTIVE STATED CONTEXT AND TASK STATED PROVISION OF INPUT PREPARATORY EXERCISES SEQUENCED, GRADED ACTIVITIES TO GATHER KEY INFORMATION ACTIVITIES TO FOCUS ON MACROSTRUCTURE ISSUES

  24. APPLICATION OF INFORMATION GATHERED ACTIVITIES TO FOCUS ON SRUCTURE AND LEXIS EXTENSION ACTIVITIES ANSWER KEY AND TEACHER’S NOTES