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FOOD SCANDALS

FOOD SCANDALS

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FOOD SCANDALS

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  1. FOOD SCANDALS

  2. Fakultätsname XYZ Fachrichtung XYZ Institutsname XYZ, Professur XYZ FOOD SCANDALS DIETHYLENE GLYCOL IN WINE Dresden, 22.05.2014

  3. AGENDA 1 Food scandals in general 2 Winemaking 3 Diethylene glycol 4 The scandal 5 Discussion

  4. Food scandals in general http://english.cri.cn/mmsource/images/2012/07/10/2518food0710.jpg

  5. A worldwide problem

  6. Winemaking

  7. Harvesting the grapes

  8. Destemming the grapes

  9. Crushing and fermentation

  10. Alcoholic fermentation

  11. Bulk aging

  12. Filtration and bottling

  13. Diethylene glycol - DEG • a colorless, practically odorless, poisonous, and hygroscopic liquid • sweetish taste • precursor for the synthesis of morpholine and 1,4-dioxane • used as a humectant for tobacco, cork, printing ink, and glue • in a solution with water also used as antifreeze

  14. Diethylene glycol - toxicology • known since 1937 • available information regarding human toxicity is limited • suggest lethal dose is between 1.0 and 1.6 g/kg of body weight • principal absorption through oral ingestion • DEG is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and distributed by the bloodstream throughout the body • DEG reaches the liver, it is metabolized by enzymes

  15. Metabolism • the mechanism of toxicity is not clearly elucidated • HEAA maycauses renal delay, leadingtometabolicacidosisandfurtherliverandkidneydamage

  16. Diethylene glycol - Symptoms • First phase • Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, abdominal pain, … • Second phase (in one to three days after ingestion) • acute kidney failure • Other symptoms: hypertension, tachycardia, … • Third phase (in five to ten days after ingestion) • neurological complications, such as: progressive lethargy, dilated and nonreactive pupils, … and coma leading to death

  17. Diethylene glycol – Treatment • patients are subject to hemodialysis • use of ethanol is important in preventing the formation of the toxic metabolite HEAA (competitive inhibitor of ADH) • it is not an approved procedure and no studies support successful removal of DEG • patients who survive but develop renal failure remain dialysis-dependent

  18. Diethylene glycol - Epidemiology • 1937 – The Massengill Incident (USA) sulfanilamidedissolvedwithDEG (105 peopledied) • 1969 – South Africa DEG instead of propylene glycol in the sedatives • 1985 – Spain topical silver sulfadiazine ointment (7 g/kg DEG) • 1986 – India discovery of glycerin contaminated with 18.5% v/v of DEG • 1990 – Nigeria / 1990-1992 - Bangladesh contaminatedparacetamolsyrup (400 childrendied) • 1992 - Argentina propolissyrupcontained between 24 and 66.5% DEG(29 people died)

  19. Diethylene glycol - Epidemiology • 1995-1996 – Haiti contaminatedacetaminophenpreparations (24% DEG); 88 childrendied (50% under the age of two) • 2006 – Panama Lisinopril (ACE inhibitor) with 22.2% v/v DEG • 2007 - Worldwide toothpasteincident 59-cent toothpaste that was labeled containing DEG (12%) • 2008 – Nigeria “My Pikin Baby”, a teething mixture tainted with DEG (84 Nigerian children died)

  20. Diethylene glycol in wine – the German scandal

  21. The scandal - Background • In 1980’s Germany was the most important export market for Austrian wine • Austrian wines were focused on the low cost segment, and were priced lower than German wines • traditional wines of Germany and Austria were sweet wines

  22. The scandal - Background • labelled in a hierarchy of Prädikat designations • no external sources of sugar were allowed • problems began with some weak vintages, where much of the grape harvest did not reach sufficient ripeness levels • search for methods, including illegal ones, to "correct" the wines • would not sufficiently correct the taste profile of the wine  By using DEG, it was possible to affect both the impression of sweetness and the body of the wine

  23. The scandal - Discovery • first wine discovered to contain DEG was a Rüster Auslese from a supermarket in Stuttgart, in 1985 • wine involving illegal sweetening had occurred earlier in Germany • but in 1985 a toxic compound had been used • the Federal Ministry of Health in Bonn issued an official health warning against the consumption of Austrian wines

  24. The scandal - Consequences • Austrian wine exports fell to one-tenth their previous level (from 45 million liter per year to around 4.4 million in 1986) • wine producers and wine dealers were arrested • a stricter wine law was enacted by the Parliament of Austria on August 29, 1985 • in Germany the wholesale dealer and bottler Pieroth were sentenced to fines of several million Deutsche Mark • a total of 270.000 hectoliter of wine had to be destroyed by the German authorities • the wine was destroyed by being poured into the ovens of a cement plant as a cooling agent instead of water

  25. Sources • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19586352 • http://www.wineanorak.com/howwineismade.htm • http://www.welt.de/wirtschaft/article8383454/Glykol-Die-Mutter-aller-Lebensmittelskandale.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1985_Diethylene_Glycol_Wine_Scandal • http://www.zeit.de/1985/34/Die-Tricks-der-Weinmischer • http://www1.wdr.de/themen/archiv/stichtag/stichtag1338.html

  26. Discussion • Whyaretherefoodscandals? Whatcouldbe a reasonforthis?  a better taste • Wouldyoupaymoreforfoodifitiscertificated? Or do you still trust in ourfood? • as a consequencethe Austrian winesarecertificatedsince 1985 andnowthepricesarehigher Präsentationsname XYZ