Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Kenya Rwanda Ethiopia Djibouti Burundi Eritrea South Africa Somalia Sudan PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Kenya Rwanda Ethiopia Djibouti Burundi Eritrea South Africa Somalia Sudan

Kenya Rwanda Ethiopia Djibouti Burundi Eritrea South Africa Somalia Sudan

236 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Kenya Rwanda Ethiopia Djibouti Burundi Eritrea South Africa Somalia Sudan

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Kenya Rwanda Ethiopia • Djibouti Burundi Eritrea • South Africa Somalia Sudan • Tanzania Malawi Uganda • Botswana Angola Zambia • Mozambique Zimbabwe

  2. Section 1 Kenya

  3. Kenya • Symbolic of Africa • The Lion King • Game preserves – savanna • National parks – protected wildlife roam • The great Masai warriors • The Great Rift Valley

  4. Kenya – physical characteristics • Located on the East coast of Africa • Equator runs through the center • Lowlands vs Highlands • SW highlands- most people live • Central plateau rises to the west • North – droughts common • Fertile highlands – get enough rain • Great Rift Valley/ Lake Victoria

  5. Understanding the Past

  6. Masai vs Kikuyu – early tribes – held land • Portugal, Germany claimed • British East Africa Company

  7. British Rule • Build a railroad from the coast (Mombasa) to Nairobi in center and to Uganda • Kenya-Uganda Railroad • Problems around Tsavo • Lions were killing workers • Movie – Great Lion Hunter • Lions – Field Museum in Chicago

  8. British Rule

  9. Under British Rule • White settlers took the land from native tribes under British rule • 1950s - Mau Mau Rebellion • British crushed the rebellion • 1963 – independence from Britain • Jomo Kenyatta became president (Kikuyu) • Kikuyu regained some farm lands

  10. Economic Activities

  11. Kenya under Kenyatta • Harambee (pulling together) grass-roots movement of people putting together • Solid economic growth – • farmers raise cash crops coffee and tea • Few minerals – depended on agriculture • Cash crop of flowers used to produce pyrethrum (pesticide) • Not growing crops to feed themselves - import • People suffer from malnutrition

  12. Government and Citizenship

  13. After Independence • Stable government • 1980s population grew fast • Not enough food or jobs • Social and political unrest

  14. Politics • Accused President Daniel arap Moi of corruption • He refused multiparty elections, jailed critics • Supporters killed world famous scientist – Richard Leakey • 1992 - Agreed to hold elections • Western nations withheld loans • Moi won elections in 1992, 1997 • Defeated in 2002 – stepped aside peacefully

  15. Kenya Today • Written a new constitution abolishes the Prime Minister – August 2010 • President – Mwai Kibaki since 2002 • Parliament • Trying to create an uncorrupt government • Ethnic violence • Not enough food

  16. Search for Peace • Ethnic violence • Not enough food • Concerns about corruption in gov’t

  17. Section 2 Other Countries of East Africa

  18. Other Countries of East Africa • Key locations - Horn of Africa • Strategic value • Valuable locations for military action • On the Indian Ocean • Shipping lanes Red Sea, Gulf of Aden • Close to oil supplies in Middle East • Midpoint between SE Asia and Europe

  19. Djibouti • Earns income - strategic ports • France pays large fees - military bases • France has worked to maintain peace • Civil War 1991 • Constitution followed • Election in 1999 • Peace in 2000 • Working to repair agriculture, education, infrastructure

  20. Ethiopia • Ancient nation -3500 BC • High fertile plains • temperate climate • Troubles • Drought in 1984, 1986 – famine • Conflict with Somalia • Civil War in Eritrea (coastal province) • Government overthrown • Lost the province of Eritrea – now landlocked • Torn by ethnic division

  21. Eritrea • After independence • economy suffered • Government worked to create modern country • Capital of Asmara – rebuilt modern capital • Modern steel plant, modern housing • Borrowed little from foreign powers • Subsistence farming/herding – basis of economy • No democracy but government is working

  22. Somalia • Since its independence in 1960 • Full-scale civil war • Severe drought-1990s • Border war with Ethiopia • No effective national government • Source of many pirates • UN sent relief • Constant fighting/no supplies get to the people • UN frustrated – withdrew aid

  23. The Sudan • Largest nation in all of Africa • Climate much like Sahel • Northern area mostly ergs– shifting sand dunes • People divided • North – Muslim Arabs • South - Different ethnic tribes (animism)(Christianity) • Southern areas called the Sudd – swampy area • Continuous war since 1956 • Darfur – genocide -millions have been killed

  24. Landlocked Countries

  25. Uganda • West of Kenya • High plateau – fertile land – cotton, coffee • Prospered under Great Britain as a colony • 1962 Independence - civil war • North – people - military power struggled against • South – people - economic power • Military struggle ended with dictatorship • Idi Amin – ruthless dictator in power in the 1970-1979 • 300,000 people ‘disappeared’ - violent struggles • Mid 1990s - rebuilding • Democratic election in 2001

  26. Rwanda and Burundi • Ethnocracy – • government in which one ethnic group rules over others

  27. Rwanda • 80% Hutu • 20% Tutsi (Watusi) • Hutu in power for 35 years (after 1959) • Overthrew Tutsi gov’t -killed 100,000 Tutsi • 1994 – Civil War • 2 million Rwandans driven away • 100,000 Tutsi killed • Currently share power -free elections • Current president – 2000 -

  28. Burundi • 14% Tutsi – in power • Control/use army to hold power • Mid 1993 – held its first free election • Elected a Hutu president • Coup overthrew him • Many Hutu and Tutsi killed • Violence continues • Agreed to share power in 2004 • Currently President Nkurunziza – Hutu -2005 • Current Vice president – Hutu - 2010

  29. Tanzania • Ancient man inhabited • Ancient slave traders – Zanzibar • Germans controlled • After WW I – British control • Independence - 1961

  30. Tanzania • Land has great potential wealth • Fertile soils • Minerals – iron ore, coal, diamonds • Varied terrain • humid coastal plain • cool highlands • Lake Victoria and Mount Kilimanjaro • dry central plains • Poor development = 2nd poorest country

  31. Tanzania • Socialism • Experiment from 1961-1985 • Villagization – • Rural people forced into towns • Worked on collective farms • Failure • Moved back to free enterprise • Farmers - back to farm land - had been idle • Sold corn and cotton • Paid a fair price for crops

  32. South Africa Section 3

  33. Geography of S Africa • Mostly high, dry plateau • Surrounded by escarpment to a coastal plain • Plateau has some areas with good rain • Grow corn, wheat and variety of fruits

  34. South Africa • Country is divided by race • 76% population is black • 13% white • 9% mixed race • 3% Asian • White minority ruled over a century

  35. Movement into African Lands • 1600s settled by Dutch, Germans, French • Over time – groups became Africaners or Boers • Own language – African – combination of Dutch, French, German • White, wealthy • Pushed natives inland, claiming land by treaty or force

  36. British Takeover • British settlers arrived • pushed Africaners inland • kept pushing to assert British control • Boer War – 3 years – 1899-1902

  37. Boer War Africaners accepted British rule • Result - British colony • Africaners/British settlers • Black Africans • driven to reserves • put to work on white-owned plantations or factories

  38. Independence • S Africa became independent in 1961 • Blacks - move out of reserves • Blacks - began to rebel • Many were jailed • Leader - Nelson Mandela

  39. 1950-1980 • Fastest growing economy in world • Abundant coal = inexpensive energy • Money to invest • Excellent connection with Britain and Europe provided technology, skills, knowledge • Blacks provided large pool of cheap labor

  40. Minority Rule • Whites controlled government • Whites controlled 2/3 land and best farmland • Whites controlled gold mines • Whites controlled diamond mines • Whites controlled mines of 70 other minerals • Whites controlled thriving industries • Whites controlled the wealth

  41. Government control • White government afraid of blacks • To control them the gov’t created arbitrary regions called homelands – 75% people forced to live on 13% land • Everyone has to stay in their assigned homeland unless they were given a pass to live somewhere else • Became know as Apartheid

  42. Apartheid • Means apartness • Black Africans were segregated from the whites • Separate public facilities – schools • Facilities were never as good • Any rebels were jailed

  43. International Backlash • 1986 Europe, US placed economic sanctionson South Africa • End apartheid • Prohibited Americans from investing • Banned imports • Pressure from within through protests • Banned from the Olympics • Cost S Africa $2 billion

  44. Change F.W. de Klerk – new prime minister in 1989 • Released prominent activist Nelson Mandela who had been in prison – 27 years • Leader of African National Congress – negotiated with white government • 1990-1991 – apartheid laws were repealed • Transition of power to Black majority • 1994 – free elections – Mandela 1st president

  45. Mandela/deKlerk

  46. South Africa Today • 1996 – new constitution • Guaranteed equality in housing, health care, water, food, and education • Still some economic and social problems • Model government has kept peace • Mandela’s party still in power • President Jacob Zuma – May 2009

  47. Other Countries of Southern Africa